Objective: To evaluate the utility of a performance-based test (PBT), the 2 × 3 Multi-Level Action Test (2 × 3), as an assessment measure for individuals with mild to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). 2 × 3 performance for individuals with TBI who report difficulties in everyday functioning was compared to healthy control participants. The associations between 2 × 3 performance, traditional neuropsychological measures (NPs), and self-reported deficits were examined. Method: This prospective observational study was conducted at a metropolitan medical center. Forty-four adults living in the community qualified. Participants completed self-report measures (demographic and health questionnaire; BISQ; BRIEF; BDI-II), the 2 × 3, and NPs (RBANS-B, WCST-SF, TMT-A & B, D-KEFS Tower, Color-Word, and Design Fluency) in a 2-hour session. The 2 × 3 requires completing three tasks twice (packing a lunchbox, wrapping a present, and making toast). Results: 2 × 3 data were available for 28 participants (15...

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