Objective: Processing speed has been shown to be the most common cognitive deficit in MS. However, its ability to predict additional, more neuropathological consequences of MS, such as white matter damage, especially within a longitudinal framework, is unclear. The present study aims to examine the ability of processing speed performance to predict white matter damage a decade later using a voxel-wise approach. Method: Twenty-two individuals with MS were administered the SDMT and Symbol Copy (SC) tests and were scanned during a DTI protocol approximately 10 years later. Standard scores for the SDMT and Symbol-Copy were calculated using a sample-based control group. All DTI data processing and analyses were carried out using FMRIB Software Library's (FSL) DTI/TBSS pipeline. Using SDMT and SC performance as predictors, voxel-wise regression analyses were run on FA, RD, AD, and MD maps separately using FSL's Randomise tool. Results: After correcting for multiple comparisons, SDMT performance was...

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