Objective: Youth with ADHD perform more poorly on preseason cognitive testing but prior studies have not examined the influence of medication use on test performance. Given neurocognitive deficits associated with ADHD and improvement in cognition with pharmacotherapy, youth with ADHD not taking medication were hypothesized to perform worse than controls without ADHD and youth with ADHD who did report taking medication. Method: Participants were 35,165 student athletes, between ages 13 and 18 (mean age = 15.4 years, SD = 1.2), who completed baseline cognitive testing with ImPACT®, a computer-administered neurocognitive battery. The sample included slightly more boys (53.2%) than girls. Differences on ImPACT® composite scores (between ADHD/no medication, ADHD/medication, and control groups) were examined with ANOVAs, conducted separately by gender. Results: Groups differed across all ImPACT® composites. Pairwise effect sizes indicated that most of the differences were small (Cohen's d = 0.16-0.37). The largest differences (i.e., d ≥ .29) were...

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