Objective: The aim of this study is to determine if sleep apnea affects neuropsychological domains and depression as compared to brain injury. Method: The participants (N = 510) were predominately male (59.4%) adults with a mean age of 69.81 (SD = 9.83) and mean education of 15.71 (SD = 2.88). The sample was coded for sleep apnea (n = 228), brain injury without loss of consciousness (TBI no LOC) (n = 106), and TBI brief LOC (n = 176). The participants were selected from an archival database of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center and the outcome measures were age and education-adjusted z-scores. Results: Using a .05 significance level, an ANOVA procedure revealed a statistically significant effect of diagnosed condition on the following assessments: Logical Memory—Immediate, Logical Memory—Delayed, Category Fluency—Vegetables, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Post-hoc results showed the differences were attributed to poorer outcomes in the sleep apnea...

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