Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate recent findings that phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were related to language processing but not executive functioning (EF). Method: 320 healthy participants (M age = 19.84, SD = 1.44; M education = 12.98, SD = 0.97; 57.8% female; 67.5% White, 23.4% African American, 4.7% Asian, 1.9% Hispanic, 1.6% Other) completed a neuropsychological battery. An exploratory factor analysis was performed using principle axis factoring and varimax rotation on measures of EF. The first three factors were extracted based on the scree plot and used as latent executive variables. The first factor (working memory) included high loadings from Auditory Consonant Trigrams, Reading Span, and Operation Span. The second factor (fluid reasoning) consisted of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and WAIS-IV Visual Puzzles, Matrix Reasoning, and Similarities. The third factor (shifting/updating) was composed of the CNS Vital Signs Shifting Attention Test, WAIS-IV Digit Span,...

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