The first exploratory factor analysis of the WAIS-R using an exclusively female sample ( N = 152) of brain-damaged patients was conducted. Means for age, education, and Full Scale IQ were 43.51 years (SD = 18.22), 12.60 years (SD = 2.47), and 86.34 (SD = 13.32). Results indicated that either a two- or three-factor model was plausible for this sample. The two-factor solution supported Wechsler's (1981) Verbal and Performance IQ designations, while the three-factor model revealed Verbal-Comprehension (i.e., Information, Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Similarities), Perceptual-Organization (i.e., all Performance subtests), and Freedom From Distractibility (i.e., Digit Span) factors. Comparison of the factor structures for the present sample with those of normal women and brain-damaged men suggested factorial equivalency across groups. © 1997 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd