This article discusses neuropsychology within the Spanish-speaking world; it reviews its recent history, existing efforts, and future directions. It also addresses the practice of neuropsychology with Hispanics in the United States and posits that it should take into account the heterogeneity of this population (the largest minority group in the country). Hispanic heterogeneity includes, among other variables, ethnicity, language, acculturation, age and education. Data from current research suggest that these are relevant variables affecting the psychometrics of cognition and therefore, the practice of neuropsychology with this population. Suggestions for future research are also addressed.