Few studies have examined the neuropsychological sequelae associated with end-stage pulmonary disease. Neuropsychological data are presented for 47 patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were being evaluated as potential candidates for lung transplantation. Although patients exhibited a diversity of neurocognitive deficits, their highest frequencies of impairment were found on the Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Specifically, over 50% of the patients completing the SRT exhibited impaired immediate free recall and consistent long-term retrieval deficits, while more than 44% of these individuals displayed deficient long-term retrieval. Deficient SRT long-term storage strategies, cued recall, and delayed recall were exhibited by between 26% and 35% of these patients, while more than 32% of this sample displayed elevated numbers of intrusion errors. Over 31% of the patients completing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) failed to achieve the expected number of categories on this measure, while more than 23% of these individuals demonstrated elevated numbers of perseverative errors and total errors. Clinically notable frequencies of impairment (greater than 20% of the sample) were also found on the Trail Making Test (TMT): Part B and the Wechsler Memory Scale-R (WMS-R) Visual Reproduction II subtest. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) personality assessments indicated that patients were experiencing a diversity of somatic complaints and that they may have been functioning at a reduced level of efficiency. These findings are discussed in light of patients' end-stage COPD and factors possibly contributing to their neuropsychological test performances. Implications for clinical practice and future research are also included.