Abstract

Abstract

The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) was developed to overcome shortcomings of the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE), specifically its narrow range of possible scores and ceiling effects. Several studies have examined the psychometric characteristics of the 3MS, showing an improvement in reliability and increased sensitivity in detecting dementia in comparison to the MMSE. Despite research supporting the favorable psychometric features of the 3MS, the clinical value of the instrument is restricted by limited normative data, especially for the elderly population. In this study, we examine the influence of demographic characteristics on 3MS scores and present descriptive data for a sample of 393 community-dwelling older adults. Normative data, based on age and with adjustments for education, are provided for clinical use.