The neurobiological and neuropathological bases that underlie the neuropsychological deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI, are further reviewed. The article provides an update on neuroimaging methods and findings in the study of TBI since the author's published address of the 1999 Distinguished Neuropsychologist Award of the National Academy of Neuropsychology (see Bigler, 2001a). The review addresses and answers criticisms raised about the interface of neuroimaging abnormalities and neuropsychological deficits, particularly in mild TBI. The article provides further guidelines in making the link between neuroimaging findings and neuropsychological outcome in the clinical practice of neuropsychology. The article also opines on the future role and importance that neuroimaging will play in neuropsychological practice, particularly functional neuroimaging methods.