This study explored premorbid, neurocognitive, behavioral, and familial factors in preschoolers, ages 3–6, who experienced a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-nine children with TBI, 33 children with mild to moderate injuries to other body regions, and 34 non-injured children participated in the study. Neuropsychological assessments and behavioral measures were administered at the time of hospitalization and 6 months later. In comparison to the non-injury children, preschool-aged children with TBI had higher rates of premorbid behavior difficulties, lower premorbid cognitive functioning, and poorer development of pre-academic skills. In addition, parents of children with TBI reported greater situational issues and life stressors than parents of children in the non-injured group. Some neurocognitive recovery was evident in the TBI group, but no differences were recognized in behavioral and family measures at the 6-month follow-up. This study emphasizes the relative effects of premorbid characteristics in later practice of preschool children who sustain TBI.