The relationship between odor identification and cognition has not been previously well characterized. The neuroanatomy of the olfactory system and the frequent finding of olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases suggest a likely relationship between odor identification and memory, language, and executive functioning, though previous studies have often failed to demonstrate the expected relationship. The current study examined this relationship in across a continuum of ability levels (N=100). Strongest correlations were found between odor identification and language, most aspects of memory, and a measure of general cognitive functioning. Significant but more modest correlations were seen between odor identification and attention, motor, visuospatial, and executive functions. A regression analysis revealed language as the only significant predictor of olfactory performance. These findings suggest that odor identification is most closely associated with other measures of temporo-limbic functioning. The implications of these findings, particularly in consideration of the assessment of older adults, are discussed.