A mild traumatic brain injury in sports is typically referred to as a concussion. This is a common injury in amateur and professional athletics, particularly in contact sports. This injury can be very distressing for the athlete, his or her family, coaches, and school personnel. Fortunately, most athletes recover quickly and fully from this injury. However, some athletes have a slow recovery, and there are reasons to be particularly concerned about re-injury during the acute recovery period. Moreover, some athletes who have experienced multiple concussions are at risk for long-term adverse effects. Neuropsychologists are uniquely qualified to assess the neurocognitive and psychological effects of concussion. The National Academy of Neuropsychology recommends neuropsychological evaluation for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of sports-related concussion at all levels of play.