Cognition has become increasingly important as an outcome measure in studies of medication. Traditional neuropsychological assessment is limited in its ability to detect subtle, medication-related changes and it is not suitable for the rapid serial assessment required in most clinical trials. Thus, investigators have turned to computerized neuropsychological assessment for its repeatability, sensitivity to subtle cognitive changes, and ease of administration. The automated neuropsychological assessment metrics (ANAM) is one such computerized battery that has been used to measure the effects of numerous CNS-active drugs. This paper is an exhaustive review of studies that have used ANAM to measure cognitive changes associated with pharmacological treatments. The benefits and limitations of using ANAM in clinical trials are discussed.