Abstract

Normative data for 884 neurologically normal adults (15–93) are provided for a six-trial administration of Form 1 of the Spanish version of the Verbal Selective Reminding Test (VSRT). Form 2 was also administered to 391 adults (18–87). Age was the most important predictor of performance on all VSRT scores in Forms 1 and 2. Additionally, women and higher educated participants outperformed men and lower educated participants over the entire age range studied. Normative data are grouped by seven age cohorts: 15–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and 80–95.

Introduction

Declarative memory—memory for specific facts or experiences (Squire, 1987)—is of particular interest to neuropsychologist (Lezak, Howieson, & Loring, 2004) because declarative memory impairment is common in several different neuropathological and neuropsychiatric disorders (Larrabee & Crook, 1996; Ruff, Light, & Quayhagen, 1988; Squire & Shimamura, 1996). In order to establish an accurate clinical picture about the severity and nature of the memory and learning impairments, the clinician needs valid and reliable tests, with appropriate normative data (Bauer, Tobias, & Valenstein, 1993; Mayes, 1986; Squire & Shimamura, 1996). Along with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; Rey, 1964) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987), one of the most widely used measures of verbal learning and memory is the Verbal Selective Reminding Test (VSRT; Buschke, 1973). The reliability and validity of the VSRT have been studied with different neurological and pathological conditions, including traumatic brain injury (Dikmen, Machamer, Winn, & Tempkin, 1995; Paniak, Shore, & Rourke, 1989), dementia of Alzheimer's type (Campo, Morales, & Martínez-Castillo, 2003; Masur, Fuld, Blau, Crystal, & Aronson, 1990; Millet et al., 2008), Parkinson's disease (Stern, Richards, Sano, & Mayeux, 1993), temporal-lobe epilepsy (Breier et al., 1996; Drane, Loring, Lee, & Meador, 1998), multiple sclerosis (Beatty et al., 1996; Rao, Leo, & St Aubin-Faubert, 1989), Korsakoff's syndrome (Labudda, Todorovsky, Markowitsch, & Brand, 2008), learning disabilities (Fletcher, 1985), and cannabis users (Fletcher et al., 1996). Several papers have documented normative data on subjects belonging to different age ranges and diverse educational levels (Campo & Morales, 2004; Hannay & Levin, 1985; Larrabee, Trahan, Curtiss, & Levin, 1988; Ruff et al., 1988). Recently, different authors reported correlations between brain structures and different measures of VSRT procedure: Amato and colleagues (2008) reported that magnetic resonance measures of temporal regions correlated with different measures of VSRT in multiple sclerosis patients. Zimmerman and colleagues (2008) also found that measures of verbal memory correlated with measures of hippocampal volume.

A drawback of the Spanish version of the VSRT (Campo & Morales, 2004), as well as the English most widely used versions (Form 1 of Hannay & Levin, 1985), is that they are based on a 12-trial administration of a 12-word list. This makes the administration of the VSRT approximately twice as long as the RAVLT or CVLT. Consequently, the 12-trial VSRT may be more susceptible to effects of patient fatigue than the CVLT or RAVLT (Larrabee, Trahan, & Levin, 2000). Reduced time of test administration has become increasingly important, considering the impact of managed care on current clinical practice (Larrabee et al., 2000; Sweet, Westergaard, & Moberg, 1995). Kraemer, Peabody, Tinklenberg, and Yesavage (1983) found that increasing the VSRT from 5 to 10 trials results in only a minor decrease in the standard errors for encoding and storage for various clinical samples. Smith, Goode, LaMarche, and Boll (1995) reported correlations of .95 between 6- and 12-trial Long-Term Storage (LTS) for the Hannay–Levin Form 1, and .94 between 6- and 12-trial Consistent Long-Term Retrieval (CLTR) in a large sample of 200 clinical patients (100 with head injury and 100 cardiac patients being considered for heart transplant). Larrabee and colleagues (2000) also reported very high correlations (between .81 and .96) when 12- and 6-trial VSRT measures were compared. They used a large sample of 267 neurologically normal adults. Only Random Long-Term Retrieval (RLTR) scores had a small correlation of .51. Finally, Strauss, Sherman, and Spreen (2006) have indicated that there is no theoretical rationale to choose a 12-trial procedure.

Previous research has suggested that the VSRT performance is significantly affected by demographic variables, most notably age, gender, and education. These variables are important to report normative data. Campo and Morales (2004) found in a study of 329 Spanish-speaking individuals that women performed better than men on several measures of the test. This finding was consistent with other studies (Delis et al., 1987; González, Mungas, Reed, Marshall, & Haan, 2001; Larrabee et al., 1988, 2000; Norman, Evans, Miller, & Heaton, 2000; Trahan & Quintana, 1990; Wiederholt et al., 1993).

The relationship between education and VSRT scores is not clear. A significant effect of education on several measures of the test has been reported previously (Campo & Morales, 2004; Larrabee et al., 2000). However, other studies have not shown such interaction (Strauss et al., 2006). One possible explanation of these results is that the effects of education may be moderated by other variables like cognitive stimulation. When young people are studied, formal education is an important factor and it is not mediated by stimulating cognitive activities. When older people are studied, formal education is less important and engagement in cognitive stimulating activities may explain performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks (Salthouse, Berish, & Miles, 2002).

In addition, there is no agreement on the effect of the interaction between these variables. Larrabee and colleagues (2000) and Campo and Morales (2004) found no interaction between education and gender. However, Ruff and colleagues (1988) found that women, young adults, and participants with higher educational level performed better than men, older adults, and lower educated participants, respectively.

The interaction between the variables education and age has also been studied (Ardila, Ostrosky-Solis, Rosselli, & Gomez, 2000). Capitani, Barbaroto, and Laicana (1996) explain the existence of the following possibilities: (a) parallelism: The decline is the same in all age groups and, therefore, there is no interaction; (b) protection: Less decline is experienced with age in those subjects with a high educational level; and (c) confluence: The initial advantage of well-educated individuals is attenuated with increasing age. The authors conclude that the protective effect of education does not always appear and depends on the evaluated cognitive level.

The objective of this study was (a) to compare the 6- and 12-trial performance on the Spanish version of the VSRT, (b) increase the sample size of previous normative studies carried out by the authors, and (c) determine the effect of the sociodemographic variables in order to adequately stratify the normative data. Our hypotheses are based on previous research. An effect of gender, age, and education variables is expected in the performance (women, high educated, and younger people will outperform). An interactive effect between age and education is also expected.

Methods

Participants

The Form 1 data used in this study were derived from two research projects: 451 subjects were from previous normative study of the Spanish versions of VSRT (Campo and Morales, 2004). The rest of the sample comprised elderly subjects recruited from a longitudinal research project of speed processing and memory carried out by the researchers (Morales, 2006). They were studied using six-trial Form 1 during the first testing and six-trial Form 2 two years later. Thus, 884 (451 from the previous normative study and the rest from the longitudinal aging study) subjects completed Form 1 and 391 (203 from the normative study and the rest from the longitudinal aging study) Form 2. Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics of the sample for Forms 1 and 2. The sample was stratified for age (8 levels, ranging [15–29], [30–39], [40–49], [50–59], [60–69], [70–79], and [79–93]), gender, and level of education (LE; 3 levels: Low, average, and high). LE was assessed by classifying formal schooling comparable with the International Standard Classification of Education (UNESCO, 1976). Three groups were formed—those with at most primary education (LE low), those with junior vocational training (LE average), and those with senior vocational or academic training (LE high). These three levels of education corresponded with an average of 5.95, 10.85, and 16.21 years of full-time education in the sample (SD = 2.53, 1.05, and 2.81, respectively).

Table 1.

Demographic data of the sample Form 1 (n = 884) and Form 2 (n = 391)

 n Age
 
level of education frequency
 
Women:Men 
  Mean SD Low Average High  
Form 1 
 [15,29] 169 22.45 4.29 24 82 63 94:75 
 [30,39] 100 34.18 2.89 25 27 48 51:49 
 [40,49] 92 44.49 2.81 31 23 38 49:43 
 [50,59] 147 54.52 2.81 58 46 43 90:57 
 [60,69] 233 64.18 2.87 124 55 54 158:76 
 [70,79] 122 73.91 2.68 84 20 18 72:50 
 [80,93] 21 82.43 2.94 16 12:09 
 Total 884 50.93 18.60 362 256 266 525:359 
Form 2 
 [15,29] 78 24.14 3.06 29 41 44:34 
 [30,39] 52 34.21 2.82 15 31 28:24 
 [40,49] 47 44.23 2.80 13 10 24 24:23 
 [50,59] 41 54.10 3.17 17 15 27:14 
 [60,69] 97 64.66 2.66 40 24 33 66:31 
 [70,79] 68 73.63 2.77 38 17 13 47:21 
 [80,93] 81.88 2.47 04:04 
 Total 391 50.88 18.75 130 104 157 240:151 
 n Age
 
level of education frequency
 
Women:Men 
  Mean SD Low Average High  
Form 1 
 [15,29] 169 22.45 4.29 24 82 63 94:75 
 [30,39] 100 34.18 2.89 25 27 48 51:49 
 [40,49] 92 44.49 2.81 31 23 38 49:43 
 [50,59] 147 54.52 2.81 58 46 43 90:57 
 [60,69] 233 64.18 2.87 124 55 54 158:76 
 [70,79] 122 73.91 2.68 84 20 18 72:50 
 [80,93] 21 82.43 2.94 16 12:09 
 Total 884 50.93 18.60 362 256 266 525:359 
Form 2 
 [15,29] 78 24.14 3.06 29 41 44:34 
 [30,39] 52 34.21 2.82 15 31 28:24 
 [40,49] 47 44.23 2.80 13 10 24 24:23 
 [50,59] 41 54.10 3.17 17 15 27:14 
 [60,69] 97 64.66 2.66 40 24 33 66:31 
 [70,79] 68 73.63 2.77 38 17 13 47:21 
 [80,93] 81.88 2.47 04:04 
 Total 391 50.88 18.75 130 104 157 240:151 

The participants in the previous normative study were recruited by word of mouth. Elderly subjects were recruited at the University of Seville. They were enrolled in continuing educational courses for personal development organized by this institution. All of them were interviewed in a private room by graduate students in clinical psychology and entered in the study if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) absence of a previous history of neuropathological conditions; (b) absence of prior hospitalization due to psychopathological diseases (e.g., schizophrenia, significant depression); (c) absence of a previous history of abnormal psychomotor development; (d) no antecedent of drug or alcohol abuse; (e) no psychotropic medication use in amounts that could affect concentration, attention, or produce somnolence; (f) Spanish being the primary language. Older people (age up to 55) had a score not less than 24 of the Minimental Cognitive Examination (Lobo, Ezquerra, Burgada, Sala, & Seva, 1979), a Spanish version of the MMSE (Folstein, Folstein, & McHungh, 1975), and a score less than 5 of the short form of Geriatric Depression Scale (Yesavage et al., 1983). Individuals with chronic medical conditions (e.g., essential hypertension, diabetes, mild-sensorineural hearing loss) were not excluded. All individuals were cognitively capable of independent functioning. The majority of the participants were recruited from south and southwest of Spain. Efforts were made to obtain data from rural and urban areas (elderly people attending university courses were from rural and urban areas). Data of 44 subjects were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. The University of Seville approved the research procedures, and all participants gave written informed consent (informed consent of people under 18 years old was given by their parents).

Procedure and Instruments

Spanish Form 1 consisted of 12 unrelated words: Dado, Cinta, Norte, Jarro, Pollo, Frente, Llave, Cruz, Fuego, Pena, Modelo, and Oído (Dice, Ribbon, North, Mug, Chiken, Forehead, Key, Cross, Fire, Sad, Model, and Ear). Spanish Form 2 is also made up of 12 unrelated words: Fácil, Pipa, Bar, Tiesto, Duque, Costa, Sudor, Perro, Ley, Feliz, Tía, and Cierto (Easy, Pipe, Bar, Flowerpot, Duke, Coast, Sweat, Dog, Law, Happy, Aunt, and True).

Following the learning trials, multiple choice recognition trials were conducted. Twelve separate white index cards were presented to the subjects. Each card consisted of a list word and 3 foils (a phonemic foil, a semantic foil, and an unrelated foil). The participants were asked to identify the list word. The stimuli for each card printed in the order of upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right were for Form 1: (a) Dado (Dice), Ficha (Counter), Lado (Side), Moto (Motorbike); (b) Reloj (Clock), Lazo (Bow), Pinta (Pint), Cinta (Ribbon); (c) Norte (North), Cuadro (Picture), Oeste (West), Corte (Cut); (d) Tinaja (Earthenware jar), Carro (Cart), Jarro (Mug), Lápiz (Pencil); (e) Espejo (Mirror), Pollo (Chiken), Bollo (Bun), Gallina (Hen); (f) Fuente (Fountain), Mapa (Map), Cara (Face), Frente (Forehead); (g) Cerradura (Lock), Título (Title), Llave (Key), Clave (Code); (h) Cruz (Cross), Luz (Light), Puerta (Door), Medalla (Medal); (i) Incendio (Fire), Juego (Play), Fuego (Blaze), Flor (Flower); (j) Vena (Vein), Pena (Pity), Niño (Child), Llanto (Crying); (k) Tigre (Tiger), Patrón (Pattern), Pomelo (Grapefruit), Modelo (Model); (l) Caído (Fallen), Oído (Ear), Olfato (Smell), Seta (Mushroom). The stimuli for Form 2 were: (a) Fácil (Easy), Difícil (Difficult), Cajón (Drawer), Ágil (Agile); (b) Revista (Magazine), Pipa (Pipe), Pita (Agave), Tabaco (Tobacco); (c) Bar (Bar), Mar (Sea), Café (Coffee), Pared (Wall); (d) Jarrón (Vase), Puesto (Position), Tiesto (Flowerpot), Peine (Comb); (e) Buque (Warship), Duque (Duke), Marqués (Marquis), Cristal (Glass); (f) Mosca (Fly), Playa (Beach), Betún (Shoe polish), Costa (Coast); (g) Sangre (Blood), Sudor (Sweat), Prisa (Rush), Pudor (Shame); (h) Perro (Dog), Santo (Saint), Cerro (Hill), Gato (Cat); (i) Caja (Box), Justicia (Justice), Ley (Law), Rey (King); (j) Licor (Liquor), Perdiz (Partridge), Alegría (Joy), Feliz (Happy); (k) Día (Day), Melón (Melon), Tía (Aunt), Sobrino (Nephew); (l) Duda (Question), Cactus (Cactus), Puerto (Port), Cierto (True).

A single delayed recall trial was given without forewarning 30 min after completion of the multiple choice recognition trial. The interval was filled with other neuropsychological tests that did not involve memory. After the free recall delayed trial, the multiple choice recognition trial was conducted again. Reliability, validity, and the procedure to select words is reported in previous research (Campo & Morales, 2004; Campo, Morales, & Juan-Malpartida, 2000; Campo, Morales, & Martínez-Castillo, 2003). Reliability coefficients for the most clinically used measures (Total Recall, Long-Term Retrieval [LTR], LTS, CLTR, and delayed recall) were quite high ranging from .61 to .72.

The six-trial version of the test was administered according to the procedure described by Buschke (1973). The examiner presented the words at the rate of one word per 2 s. The entire list was read aloud to the subject only prior to the first recall trial. The subject was then asked to recall as many words from the list as possible and was subsequently reminded only of those words that she/he did not recall on the immediately preceding trial. The subject's responses were recorded for each trial on a record form by writing the number which corresponded to the order of recall. Intrusions were also recorded on each trial. The first time that a subject said a word that was not on the list, the examiner was allowed to say “that word was not on the list.” The examiner recorded the intrusion error in the trial where it occurred. The same procedure was followed for each new intrusion error emitted by the subject. If the subject gave a particular word four trials consecutively, then failed to give that word, the examiner was allowed to say “there is a word that you have given me quite a few times, but you have not said it yet.” The examiner was also allowed to ask the subject to run through the list out loud to make sure that she/he had not left out anything. As Buschke and Fuld (1974) pointed out it is important to encourage the patient/subject on each recall trial to obtain the maximal retrieval. Words were not spelled or defined. The total number of words on the list was not disclosed to the subject. The procedure was continued until all 12 words were recalled on three consecutive trials, without any reminding, or until six trials had been exhausted.

The test was scored following the procedures described by Buschke (1973) and Buschke and Fuld (1974). Measures scored included the sum of items recalled on each trial (TR), Short-Term Retrieval (STR), LTS, LTR, CLTR, RLTR, Intrusions (total number of different intrusion errors), multiple choice recognition trial, and delayed-recalled items. The LTS score is defined as the number of words recalled on two consecutive trials, without reminding between trials, regardless of forgetting on subsequent trials. When the subject recalled a word which had entered LTS, it was scored as LTR. The CLTR score represents words that entered LTS and were recalled on all subsequent trials and must also consist of at least two successive recollections (i.e., a word could enter CLTR on the sixth trial if it was also recalled on the fifth trial). The RLTR score represents recall of a word in LTS followed by a subsequent failure to recall the word. Recall of a word that had not entered LTS was scored as STR. Scores of the subjects from the normative study (Campo & Morales, 2004) were recalculated using measures of trials 1–6 of the 12-trial protocol.

Statistical Analysis

All analyses were carried out using R for Windows software, v. 2.10.1. Table 2 depicts the correlation between the 6 and 12 trials and range of VSRT raw scores for the sample used in a previous normative study (Campo & Morales, 2004). Correlations were calculated with 391 subjects. Like other studies found previously (Larrabee et al., 2000; Smith et al., 1995), these correlations were very high and significant. Only the RLTR correlation was low. Larrabee and colleagues (2000) consider that low correlation of RLTR is due to the decline of this measure over the second half of VSRT administration.

Table 2.

Correlations between 6- and 12-Trial VSRT scores and range of variables

Score VSRT Pearson Correlation VSRT Kendall Correlation Range
 
   Min Max 
Total Recall (TR) .865* .760* 72 
Long-Term Retrieval (LTR) .891* .799* 72 
Short-Term Retrieval (STR) .783* .800* 40 
Long-Term Storage (LTS) .860* .819* 72 
Consistent Long-Term Retrieval (CLTR) .847* .715* 69 
Random Long-Term Retrieval (RLTR) .643* .499* 46 
Intrusions .751* .831* 12 
Score VSRT Pearson Correlation VSRT Kendall Correlation Range
 
   Min Max 
Total Recall (TR) .865* .760* 72 
Long-Term Retrieval (LTR) .891* .799* 72 
Short-Term Retrieval (STR) .783* .800* 40 
Long-Term Storage (LTS) .860* .819* 72 
Consistent Long-Term Retrieval (CLTR) .847* .715* 69 
Random Long-Term Retrieval (RLTR) .643* .499* 46 
Intrusions .751* .831* 12 

Notes: VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; n = 391.

*p < .001.

Multiple regression models were fitted using a backward procedure where the first model to be tested included variables for Age, Age2, Sex, LE and second-order interaction between predictors (seeFaraway, 2005, p. 125, for details of backward procedure). The backward procedure begins with a model containing all potential predictors and identifies the one with the largest nonsignificant p-value. A model with the remaining x-variables is then fit and the procedure continues until all the p-values for the remaining variables in the model are significant. The dummies LE low and LE high were always either both present or both excluded from the model, since they belong together and represent the effect of the categorical predictor education. Similarly, their interactions with another predictor were always either included in or excluded from the model.

Nonsignificant predictors (p < .005; a lower α level was chosen in order to avoid Type I errors due to multiple testing) were excluded from the model, but no predictor was removed from the model as long as it was also included in a higher order term in the model (i.e., if the interaction between sex and education was significant and the predictor sex was nonsignificant, sex was included in the model). In particular, Age was never removed if Age2 or any interaction involving Age or Age2 was still in the model. The reason for this is that the p-value of any predictor is arbitrary (depending on the coding used for predictors), if that predictor is part of a higher order predictor in the model (Aiken & West, 1991). The assumptions of regression analysis (homoscedasticity, normal distribution of the residuals, absence of multicollinearity, and absence of “influential cases”) were tested for each model.

Results

The regression models are presented in Table 3 (Form 1) and Table 4 (Form 2). No significant influence of outliers was observed (maximum Cook distance 0.6). The variance inflation factors of the predictors in the regression models were <2. The RLTR measure was transformed because the assumption of error normality was not found.

Table 3.

Multiple regression models of the VSRT Form 1 following a backward procedure: The full model included Age, Age2, LE low, LE high, Sex, Age × LE low, Age × LE high, Age × Sex, Age2 × LE low, Age2 × LE high, Age2 × Sex

Score Variable β St. Er. β T p-value Std. β R2 
TR (Constant) 46.886 0.673 69.635 **   
Age −0.335 0.017 −19.569 ** −0.587  
Age2 −0.005 0.001 −5.307 ** −0.149  
Sex −2.679 0.564 −4.748 ** −0.124  
LE Low −1.825 0.714 −2.557  −0.085  
LE High 2.770 0.727 3.813 ** 0.120 .406 
LTR (Constant) 34.192 0.992 34.456 **   
Age −0.466 0.025 −18.463 ** −0.564  
Age2 −0.004 0.001 −3.061 ** −0.088  
Sex −4.789 0.832 −5.758 ** −0.153  
LE Low −2.001 1.052 −1.902  −0.064  
LE High 4.250 1.071 3.968 ** 0.127 .384 
STR (Constant) 12.817 0.401 31.970 **   
Age 0.136 0.011 12.107 ** 0.397  
Sex 2.146 0.394 5.441 ** 0.165  
LE Low 0.220 0.498 −0.441  −0.017  
LE High −1.734 0.502 −3.456 −0.124 .200 
LTS (Constant) 37.094 1.027 26.116 **   
Age −0.459 0.026 −17.596 ** −0.544  
Age2 −0.004 0.001 −3.066 −0.089  
Sex −4.733 0.861 −5.500 ** −0.148  
LE Low −2.583 1.089 −2.372  −0.081  
LE High 4.143 1.108 3.738 0.121 .369 
CLTR (Constant) 23.188 0.913 25.397 **   
Age −0.313 0.026 −13.019 ** −0.419  
Sex −4.573 0.861 −5.310 ** −0.152  
LE Low −1.116 1.097 −1.018  −0.037  
LE High 5.525 1.162 4.755 ** 0.171 .263 
Log(RLTR + 0.5) (Constant) 2.005 0.009 21.948 **   
Age −0.015 0.002  −6.236 ** −0.257  
Age2 0.000 0.000 −1.387  0.071  
LE Low −0.128 0.121  −1.058  −0.059  
LE High 0.184 0.130  1.413  0.080  
Age2 × LE High −0.001 0.000 −3.340 ** −0.290 .078 
Delayed recall (Constant) 8.829 0.221 39.955 **   
Age −0.139 0.005 −26.091 ** −0.764  
Age2 −0.002 0.000  −6.602 ** −0.250  
Sex −0.975 0.160  −6.099 ** −0.147  
LE Low −0.785 0.278  −2.839 −0.121  
LE High 0.548 0.297 1.843  0.067  
(Age)2 × LE Low 0.002 0.001 3.510 0.147 .532 
Score Variable β St. Er. β T p-value Std. β R2 
TR (Constant) 46.886 0.673 69.635 **   
Age −0.335 0.017 −19.569 ** −0.587  
Age2 −0.005 0.001 −5.307 ** −0.149  
Sex −2.679 0.564 −4.748 ** −0.124  
LE Low −1.825 0.714 −2.557  −0.085  
LE High 2.770 0.727 3.813 ** 0.120 .406 
LTR (Constant) 34.192 0.992 34.456 **   
Age −0.466 0.025 −18.463 ** −0.564  
Age2 −0.004 0.001 −3.061 ** −0.088  
Sex −4.789 0.832 −5.758 ** −0.153  
LE Low −2.001 1.052 −1.902  −0.064  
LE High 4.250 1.071 3.968 ** 0.127 .384 
STR (Constant) 12.817 0.401 31.970 **   
Age 0.136 0.011 12.107 ** 0.397  
Sex 2.146 0.394 5.441 ** 0.165  
LE Low 0.220 0.498 −0.441  −0.017  
LE High −1.734 0.502 −3.456 −0.124 .200 
LTS (Constant) 37.094 1.027 26.116 **   
Age −0.459 0.026 −17.596 ** −0.544  
Age2 −0.004 0.001 −3.066 −0.089  
Sex −4.733 0.861 −5.500 ** −0.148  
LE Low −2.583 1.089 −2.372  −0.081  
LE High 4.143 1.108 3.738 0.121 .369 
CLTR (Constant) 23.188 0.913 25.397 **   
Age −0.313 0.026 −13.019 ** −0.419  
Sex −4.573 0.861 −5.310 ** −0.152  
LE Low −1.116 1.097 −1.018  −0.037  
LE High 5.525 1.162 4.755 ** 0.171 .263 
Log(RLTR + 0.5) (Constant) 2.005 0.009 21.948 **   
Age −0.015 0.002  −6.236 ** −0.257  
Age2 0.000 0.000 −1.387  0.071  
LE Low −0.128 0.121  −1.058  −0.059  
LE High 0.184 0.130  1.413  0.080  
Age2 × LE High −0.001 0.000 −3.340 ** −0.290 .078 
Delayed recall (Constant) 8.829 0.221 39.955 **   
Age −0.139 0.005 −26.091 ** −0.764  
Age2 −0.002 0.000  −6.602 ** −0.250  
Sex −0.975 0.160  −6.099 ** −0.147  
LE Low −0.785 0.278  −2.839 −0.121  
LE High 0.548 0.297 1.843  0.067  
(Age)2 × LE Low 0.002 0.001 3.510 0.147 .532 

Notes: VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LE = level of education. Coding of the predictors: Age = calendar age − 51; (Age)2 = (calendar age − 51)2; Sex: Men = 1, Women = 0; LE low = Low Education = 1, Average or High Education = 0; LE High = : High Education = 1, Low or Average = 0; St. Err. β = Standard Error Beta; St. β = Standardized Beta; TR = Total Recall; LTR = Long-Term Retrieval; STR = Short-Term Retrieval; LTS = Long-Term Storage; CLTR = Consistent Long-Term Retrieval.

*p < .005.

**p < .001.

Table 4.

Multiple regression models of the VSRT Form 2 following a backward procedure: the full model included Age, Age2, LE low, LE high, Sex, Age × LE low, Age × LE high, Age × Sex, Age2 × LE low, Age2 × LE high, and Age2 × Sex

Score Variable β St. Err. β T p-value St. β R2 
TR (Constant) 45.211 0.731 61.852 **   
Age −0.247 0.023 −10.858 ** −0.468  
LE Low −3.346 1.058 −3.162 −0.159  
LE High 3.673 0.934 3.932 ** 0.183 .416 
LTR (Constant) 32.297 1.141 28.309 **   
Age −0.330 0.034 −9.698 ** −0.433  
LE Low −3.676 1.596 −2.303  −0.121  
LE High 5.502 1.463 3.760 ** 0.189 .351 
STR (Constant) 12.407 0.275 45.104 **   
Age 0.106 0.015 7.392 ** 0.351 .123 
LTS (Constant) 35.047 1.166 30.041 **   
Age −0.323 0.035 −9.274 ** −0.415  
LE Low −4.410 1.632 −2.701 −0.143  
LE High 5.543 1.496 3.705 ** 0.187 .348 
CLTR (Constant) 21.992 1.277 17.224 **   
Age −0.263 0.038 −6.907 ** −0.335 .165 
LE Low −3.430 1.787 −1.920  −0.110  
LE High 5.245 1.638  3.203 0.175  
RLTR (Constant) 12.160 0.530 22.940 **   
Age −0.093 0.017 −5.512 ** −0.258  
Age2 −0.005 0.001 −4.592 ** −0.225 .089 
Delayed recall (Constant) 7.858 0.224 35.030 **   
Age −0.105 0.007 −15.749 ** −0.608  
LE Low −0.753 0.314 −2.398  −0.109  
LE High 0.901 0.288  3.131 ** 0.136 .515 
Score Variable β St. Err. β T p-value St. β R2 
TR (Constant) 45.211 0.731 61.852 **   
Age −0.247 0.023 −10.858 ** −0.468  
LE Low −3.346 1.058 −3.162 −0.159  
LE High 3.673 0.934 3.932 ** 0.183 .416 
LTR (Constant) 32.297 1.141 28.309 **   
Age −0.330 0.034 −9.698 ** −0.433  
LE Low −3.676 1.596 −2.303  −0.121  
LE High 5.502 1.463 3.760 ** 0.189 .351 
STR (Constant) 12.407 0.275 45.104 **   
Age 0.106 0.015 7.392 ** 0.351 .123 
LTS (Constant) 35.047 1.166 30.041 **   
Age −0.323 0.035 −9.274 ** −0.415  
LE Low −4.410 1.632 −2.701 −0.143  
LE High 5.543 1.496 3.705 ** 0.187 .348 
CLTR (Constant) 21.992 1.277 17.224 **   
Age −0.263 0.038 −6.907 ** −0.335 .165 
LE Low −3.430 1.787 −1.920  −0.110  
LE High 5.245 1.638  3.203 0.175  
RLTR (Constant) 12.160 0.530 22.940 **   
Age −0.093 0.017 −5.512 ** −0.258  
Age2 −0.005 0.001 −4.592 ** −0.225 .089 
Delayed recall (Constant) 7.858 0.224 35.030 **   
Age −0.105 0.007 −15.749 ** −0.608  
LE Low −0.753 0.314 −2.398  −0.109  
LE High 0.901 0.288  3.131 ** 0.136 .515 

Notes: VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LE = level of education. Coding of the predictors: Age = calendar age – 51; Age2 = (calendar age – 51)2; Sex: Men = 1, Women = 0; LE low: Low Education = 1, Average or High Education = 0; LE High: High Education = 1, Low or Average = 0; St. Err. β = Standard Error Beta; St. β = Standardized Beta; TR = Total Recall; LTR = Long-Term Retrieval; STR = Short-Term Retrieval; LTS = Long-Term Storage; CLTR = Consistent Long-Term Retrieval; RLTR = Random Long-Term Retrieval.

*p < .005.

**p < .001.

Age was the most important predictor on performance on all VSRT scores in Forms 1 and 2. An additional quadratic effect of age on VSRT performance was observed for most VSRT measures only in Form 1 (STR was not affected by this variable). Education was another important variable. Participants with higher LEs tended to receive higher scores on the test (except for STR measure). A significant interaction between age and education was also found in delayed recall measures and RLTR measures (Figs. 1 and 2; statistics and p-value are showed in Tables 3 and 4). When delayed recall was measured, people with a high LE showed better performance than those with a low or average LE. However, these differences were less pronounced when the performance of older people was compared. In addition, the RLTR measurement groups with low and average LEs showed a tendency to decline with age higher than well-educated people. These results may be explained because there were very few subjects in the older group. Gender was another important variable in several Form 1 measures. Women outperformed men in most of VSRT measures. STR variable was an exception. However, there was no effect of this variable in Form 2 measures.

Figure 1.

Delayed recall for Form 1 on the VSRT per level of education as a function of age.

Figure 1.

Delayed recall for Form 1 on the VSRT per level of education as a function of age.

Figure 2.

RLTR measure for Form 1 on the VSRT per level of education as a function of age centered (age − mean of age).

Figure 2.

RLTR measure for Form 1 on the VSRT per level of education as a function of age centered (age − mean of age).

Normative data are obtained by calculating the participant's predicted VSRT score using regression models (Tables 3 and 4). The residuals of each score are then calculated (ei = observed score − predicted score) and standardized (Zi= ei/SD [residual]) using Table 5. After standardization of the residuals, the participants's performance can be evaluated via a Z-distribution table with cumulative probabilities or a simplified version thereof (Table 6). For example, Form 1 was administered to a 60-year-old man with high LE. The predicted total recalled score for this person would be 43.557 = 46.886 + ((60 − 51) × (−0.335)) + ((60 − 51)2 × (−0.005)) + (−2.679) × 1 + (2.770) × 1. The SD (residual) equals 8.20 and the standardized residual −0.19 = (44 − 43.557)/8.20, which corresponds to a p-value of .05, and can be considered “Normal” according to Table 6. Tables 7–17 provide normative data stratified by age group (25 = group [15–29], 35 = group [30–39], 45 = group [40–49], 55 = group [50–59], 65 = group [60–69], 75 = group [70–79], 85 = group [80–93]), LE (L = Low Level, A = Average Level, and H = high Level), and Sex (W = Women, M = Men). If the performance of such an individual is borderline normal according to these tables (e.g., Z-value ≈1.28), the regression models presented in Tables 3 and 4 can be used to determine the exact Z-values.

Table 5.

Standard deviations of the residuals per VSRT measures

Form 1
 
Form 2
 
Measure SD residual Measure SD residual 
Total Recall 8.200 Total Recall 7.573 
LTR 12.089 LTR 11.560 
STR 5.733 STR 5.439 
LTS 12.511 LTS 11.817 
CLTR 12.720 CLTR 12.932 
Log(RLTR + 0.5) 1.016 RLTR 6.458 
Delayed recall 2.317 Delayed recall 2.272 
Form 1
 
Form 2
 
Measure SD residual Measure SD residual 
Total Recall 8.200 Total Recall 7.573 
LTR 12.089 LTR 11.560 
STR 5.733 STR 5.439 
LTS 12.511 LTS 11.817 
CLTR 12.720 CLTR 12.932 
Log(RLTR + 0.5) 1.016 RLTR 6.458 
Delayed recall 2.317 Delayed recall 2.272 

Notes: VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LTR = Long-Term Retrieval; STR = Short-Term Retrieval; LTS = Long-Term Storage; CLTR = Consistent Long-Term Retrieval; RLTR = Random Long-Term Retrieval.

Table 6.

Z-score intervals with the corresponding proportion of individuals with a score falling within this interval and corresponding verbal labels

Z-score interval Percentage within this interval (%) Verbal label 
Below −2.0 2.3 Very poor performance 
Between −2.0 and −1.5 4.4 Poor performance 
Between −1.5 and −1.0 9.2 Below normal 
Between −1.0 and −0.5 15 Normal 
Between −0.5 and 0.5 38.3 Normal 
Between 0.5 and 1.0 15 Normal 
Between 1.5 and 1.0 9.2 Above normal 
Between 2.0 and 1.5 4.4 Good performance 
Above 2.0 2.3 Very good performance 
Z-score interval Percentage within this interval (%) Verbal label 
Below −2.0 2.3 Very poor performance 
Between −2.0 and −1.5 4.4 Poor performance 
Between −1.5 and −1.0 9.2 Below normal 
Between −1.0 and −0.5 15 Normal 
Between −0.5 and 0.5 38.3 Normal 
Between 0.5 and 1.0 15 Normal 
Between 1.5 and 1.0 9.2 Above normal 
Between 2.0 and 1.5 4.4 Good performance 
Above 2.0 2.3 Very good performance 

Discussion

The results of this research provide normative data for the Spanish version of six trials of the VSRT. The current paper complements another one carried out by Campo and Morales (2004) where they reported normative data for a Spanish version of VSRT using 12 trials. The sample has been increased and age range is larger in this study. These normative data have increased significantly the number of subjects older than 55 years, and the procedure was shortened using a six-trial version. Several studies have shown the equivalence between 6- and 12-trial procedures (Larrabee et al., 2000; Smith et al., 1995). This study confirms these results between 6- and 12-trial of the Spanish version of VSRT. The correlations between these procedures were very high for several measures (TR, LTR, STR, LTS, and Intrusions) ranging between .75 and .89. RLTR was the measure with lowest correlation (.64). Studies of the English version found the same pattern (Larrabee et al., 2000). We hope that clinicians may be motivated to use this six-trial VSRT in order to reduce the patience's fatigue. Also, reduced time of test administration has become increasingly important in clinical settings.

An important objective of this research was to describe the role played by sociodemographical variables on subjects’ response. It has been found that age is the most important predictor of the three that were studied. As age increases, subjects tend to obtain lower scores. The only exception was STR measurement, which showed a tendency to increase. Similarly, this study has revealed a quadratic effect of age (greater score reduction of subjects from age 55) that is also mentioned in the literature (Lezak et al., 2004; Peña-Casanova et al., 2009; Strauss et al., 2006). However, it is worth mentioning that this result has not been contrasted in the longitudinal studies (Ardila et al., 2000), and the limitations inherent to transversal studies must be taken into account.

Another significant effect found was related to the education variable. The influence of education on memory tests performance is unclear, with some studies finding a significant contribution of this variable, whereas others find that education is not associated with test performance (Lezak et al., 2004; Strauss et al., 2006). Results revealed that those with high university education performed better than those with secondary or primary education.

Results have also revealed that there is no interaction between the variables education level and age. Only in the delayed recall variable has such an interaction been found. The subjects with a higher educational level showed a greater number of recalled words than those with a lower educational level in the younger age groups. As age of subjects increase, these differences are attenuated, although they do not disappear completely. These results may be explained by different hypotheses. One of them is based on the idea that higher education has a protective effect on cognition with advancing age (Hall et al., 2007). This means that subjects with more education are less exposed to risk factors and show a higher cognitive reserve. However, alternative hypotheses cannot be ruled out as, for instance, the fact that less educated people are less accustomed to being evaluated or that their reading level is lower (especially in the case of tests that measure verbal memory). Some studies have shown that a high correlation exists between reading level and educative level (Garrett, Grady, & Hasher, 2010).

Gender effect was important only when Form 1 was administered. Results demonstrated that women performed better than men on several measures of the test. This finding is also consistent with previous studies (Campo & Morales, 2004; Delis et al., 1987; González et al., 2001; Norman et al., 2000). However, Peña-Casanova and colleagues (2009) found no gender effect in a Spanish version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). In our opinion, it is quite surprising that no significant differences were found between men and women in a verbal test such as the one used for this study. We believe it can be attributed to the characteristics of the sample. The sample is not large and women nearly double men (with more than twice as many women in the group aged 50 and older). Another possibility is that Form 1 words may have been easier than words or Form 2 for men. Further research should investigate the existence of sex and Form item differential functioning.

Another important matter is the possibility to use normative data of this research to assess Latin Americans. We consider that there are cultural differences between Hispanics and Spaniards. Therefore, it is not possible to use these norms at this moment. The use of a foreign version of a test, or a literal translation with little concern regarding cultural influences, along with the use of normative data obtained from English-speaking samples can be considered the two most relevant problems affecting the neuropsychological assessment of Hispanics in the United States (Ardila, 1995; Echemendia & Harris, 2004; Gasquoine, 2001; Lange, 2002; Ostrosky-Solis, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1999; Ponton & Ardila, 1999; Ponton et al., 1996; Shuttleworth-Edwards et al., 2004). Further research is necessary to determine the suitability of these norms to people from other Spanish-speaking countries that are culturally and linguistically different. Latin Americans comprise a significant proportion of the population in the United States (the U.S. Bureau of Census [1990] consider that by the year 2020, there will be more than 52 million Latinos in the United States). There is, as yet, no research supporting the use of Spanish version of VSRT in this group. However, before using this test is necessary to study the validity in theses populations (Campo & Morales, 2007; Hambleton, 2005).

To sum up, in this work, normative data have been presented for the Spanish version of TRVS with six trials stratified by age, educational level, and gender. Results indicate that age and education are the main factors affecting subjects’ performance. In spite of the large size of the sample used, this research shows some limitations (a) the sample for Form 1 needs to be increased in the older age groups, and (b) the sample for Form 2 should be increased in all age groups and particularly in the number of men over age 50.

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APPENDIX

Results

Table A1.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the TR and LTR scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for Women (W)

   TR
 
LTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 39.2 40.2 42.6 51.0 51.8 57.8 60.0 23.2 25.0 31.0 40.0 42.2 51.2 55.6 
 43.3 44.0 47.2 53.0 54.6 59.8 62.7 24.3 26.2 34.0 46.0 48.0 56.2 60.4 
 43.0 47.3 49.6 58.0 59.0 63.0 66.0 29.6 33.3 39.2 53.0 55.0 60.4 64.3 
35 36.8 39.2 44.8 47.0 47.0 55.6 57.2 22.4 26.4 28.0 36.0 38.0 48.0 51.4 
 43.0 43.0 43.4 51.0 52.0 54.9 57.7 25.9 29.7 36.2 43.0 45.2 48.9 53.0 
 43.5 46.0 48.0 53.5 54.0 61.0 66.8 29.0 30.0 35.0 42.0 47.0 56.0 64.5 
45 28.4 32.2 35.8 47.0 47.0 52.0 52.1 13.7 21.4 23.6 31.0 33.8 42.4 44.0 
 38.8 41.2 43.2 45.5 47.8 55.6 57.8 18.8 21.4 25.8 32.0 33.2 51.4 53.3 
 39.4 41.4 47.4 52.5 53.2 57.6 59.0 24.9 26.0 34.6 45.5 48.0 52.6 54.0 
55 30.0 31.7 37.8 46.0 47.0 52.3 55.1 16.0 17.4 21.0 31.0 33.0 44.0 47.1 
 31.8 35.8 39.4 48.0 49.0 59.0 60.6 18.2 19.8 26.6 38.0 39.4 54.6 58.2 
 36.6 39.8 43.2 47.0 50.0 59.0 62.7 17.3 18.0 26.8 33.0 36.8 54.0 59.8 
65 24.1 27.7 31.0 41.5 44.0 52.0 55.3 7.4 9.7 13.0 27.0 30.0 41.0 46.6 
 32.0 35.0 38.0 42.5 45.0 52.5 58.2 10.5 13.5 21.0 28.5 32.0 47.5 51.8 
 34.0 35.0 39.0 45.0 46.0 51.0 54.5 11.5 14.0 19.0 32.0 34.0 44.0 47.0 
75 16.5 19.0 23.0 33.0 38.0 50.0 54.5 2.0 4.0 5.0 20.0 23.0 40.0 46.5 
 27.6 29.0 29.4 34.0 35.0 44.2 48.1 6.2 8.2 10.0 12.5 18.8 27.8 34.7 
 16.4 20.8 32.0 42.0 42.8 49.4 50.2 2.0 4.0 12.8 29.0 33.0 42.2 46.6 
85 19.2 20.4 21.0 23.0 26.2 37.8 39.4 0.0 0.0 1.2 13.0 13.0 19.8 21.4 
 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 
 24.6 26.1 29.2 38.5 41.6 50.9 52.4 9.7 11.4 14.8 25.0 28.4 38.6 40.3 
   TR
 
LTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 39.2 40.2 42.6 51.0 51.8 57.8 60.0 23.2 25.0 31.0 40.0 42.2 51.2 55.6 
 43.3 44.0 47.2 53.0 54.6 59.8 62.7 24.3 26.2 34.0 46.0 48.0 56.2 60.4 
 43.0 47.3 49.6 58.0 59.0 63.0 66.0 29.6 33.3 39.2 53.0 55.0 60.4 64.3 
35 36.8 39.2 44.8 47.0 47.0 55.6 57.2 22.4 26.4 28.0 36.0 38.0 48.0 51.4 
 43.0 43.0 43.4 51.0 52.0 54.9 57.7 25.9 29.7 36.2 43.0 45.2 48.9 53.0 
 43.5 46.0 48.0 53.5 54.0 61.0 66.8 29.0 30.0 35.0 42.0 47.0 56.0 64.5 
45 28.4 32.2 35.8 47.0 47.0 52.0 52.1 13.7 21.4 23.6 31.0 33.8 42.4 44.0 
 38.8 41.2 43.2 45.5 47.8 55.6 57.8 18.8 21.4 25.8 32.0 33.2 51.4 53.3 
 39.4 41.4 47.4 52.5 53.2 57.6 59.0 24.9 26.0 34.6 45.5 48.0 52.6 54.0 
55 30.0 31.7 37.8 46.0 47.0 52.3 55.1 16.0 17.4 21.0 31.0 33.0 44.0 47.1 
 31.8 35.8 39.4 48.0 49.0 59.0 60.6 18.2 19.8 26.6 38.0 39.4 54.6 58.2 
 36.6 39.8 43.2 47.0 50.0 59.0 62.7 17.3 18.0 26.8 33.0 36.8 54.0 59.8 
65 24.1 27.7 31.0 41.5 44.0 52.0 55.3 7.4 9.7 13.0 27.0 30.0 41.0 46.6 
 32.0 35.0 38.0 42.5 45.0 52.5 58.2 10.5 13.5 21.0 28.5 32.0 47.5 51.8 
 34.0 35.0 39.0 45.0 46.0 51.0 54.5 11.5 14.0 19.0 32.0 34.0 44.0 47.0 
75 16.5 19.0 23.0 33.0 38.0 50.0 54.5 2.0 4.0 5.0 20.0 23.0 40.0 46.5 
 27.6 29.0 29.4 34.0 35.0 44.2 48.1 6.2 8.2 10.0 12.5 18.8 27.8 34.7 
 16.4 20.8 32.0 42.0 42.8 49.4 50.2 2.0 4.0 12.8 29.0 33.0 42.2 46.6 
85 19.2 20.4 21.0 23.0 26.2 37.8 39.4 0.0 0.0 1.2 13.0 13.0 19.8 21.4 
 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 
 24.6 26.1 29.2 38.5 41.6 50.9 52.4 9.7 11.4 14.8 25.0 28.4 38.6 40.3 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LTR = Long-Term Retrieval; TR = Total Recall.

Table A2.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the LTS and STR scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85 years) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for women (W)

   LTS
 
STR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 23.6 25.2 33.2 42.0 42.4 52.6 57.4 4.4 6.4 8.0 9.0 10.2 16.0 17.4 
26.2 29.6 35.0 49.0 50.6 59.8 62.7 2.3 3.0 4.0 8.0 10.0 17.4 18.0 
30.9 38.6 40.0 54.5 56.6 61.4 64.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.5 7.0 14.7 15.3 
35 25.0 29.0 29.8 39.0 39.4 51.0 53.8 4.6 5.4 7.0 10.0 12.0 17.6 18.4 
28.0 32.7 39.8 47.0 48.2 57.6 59.3 3.0 3.3 6.2 7.5 8.0 13.5 17.1 
30.0 31.0 39.0 44.5 50.0 58.5 64.8 2.2 3.5 6.0 9.5 11.0 16.5 18.5 
45 15.7 24.2 27.0 35.0 35.8 45.2 46.1 7.8 8.0 9.0 13.0 14.0 16.6 19.2 
19.8 22.4 27.2 34.0 36.8 55.8 56.5 4.5 5.1 7.2 15.0 16.6 20.0 20.4 
29.0 32.8 36.4 48.5 49.4 55.3 56.9 4.5 5.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 14.6 16.7 
55 20.6 21.0 24.4 33.0 34.2 47.6 49.4 5.8 6.7 8.4 13.0 14.2 21.0 22.4 
16.8 22.4 29.8 41.0 43.8 56.6 58.6 3.2 4.4 6.0 10.0 12.0 17.0 21.0 
21.3 22.6 28.0 37.0 40.0 57.4 61.5 3.0 3.6 6.2 13.0 14.0 19.8 22.4 
65 8.0 11.0 16.0 29.0 32.2 44.3 47.3 6.4 8.0 10.0 15.0 16.0 21.0 23.6 
14.2 19.0 22.0 32.0 36.0 52.5 56.8 4.0 6.0 8.0 15.0 17.0 23.5 24.5 
12.5 14.0 22.0 37.0 38.0 48.0 51.5 6.0 8.0 10.0 13.0 14.0 21.0 23.5 
75 2.5 5.0 7.0 22.0 27.0 44.0 49.0 6.5 9.0 10.0 13.0 14.0 22.0 23.0 
7.3 10.1 11.4 15.5 19.6 33.7 39.4 9.0 9.4 13.0 18.0 19.6 24.8 25.0 
2.0 4.0 14.6 35.0 35.0 46.8 50.4 1.6 3.2 7.0 13.0 13.8 20.0 20.0 
85 0.0 0.0 1.8 13.0 16.2 23.8 27.4 10.0 10.0 12.4 16.0 18.4 22.2 22.6 
11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 
12.7 14.3 17.6 27.5 30.8 40.7 42.3 12.1 12.3 12.6 13.5 13.8 14.7 14.9 
   LTS
 
STR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 23.6 25.2 33.2 42.0 42.4 52.6 57.4 4.4 6.4 8.0 9.0 10.2 16.0 17.4 
26.2 29.6 35.0 49.0 50.6 59.8 62.7 2.3 3.0 4.0 8.0 10.0 17.4 18.0 
30.9 38.6 40.0 54.5 56.6 61.4 64.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.5 7.0 14.7 15.3 
35 25.0 29.0 29.8 39.0 39.4 51.0 53.8 4.6 5.4 7.0 10.0 12.0 17.6 18.4 
28.0 32.7 39.8 47.0 48.2 57.6 59.3 3.0 3.3 6.2 7.5 8.0 13.5 17.1 
30.0 31.0 39.0 44.5 50.0 58.5 64.8 2.2 3.5 6.0 9.5 11.0 16.5 18.5 
45 15.7 24.2 27.0 35.0 35.8 45.2 46.1 7.8 8.0 9.0 13.0 14.0 16.6 19.2 
19.8 22.4 27.2 34.0 36.8 55.8 56.5 4.5 5.1 7.2 15.0 16.6 20.0 20.4 
29.0 32.8 36.4 48.5 49.4 55.3 56.9 4.5 5.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 14.6 16.7 
55 20.6 21.0 24.4 33.0 34.2 47.6 49.4 5.8 6.7 8.4 13.0 14.2 21.0 22.4 
16.8 22.4 29.8 41.0 43.8 56.6 58.6 3.2 4.4 6.0 10.0 12.0 17.0 21.0 
21.3 22.6 28.0 37.0 40.0 57.4 61.5 3.0 3.6 6.2 13.0 14.0 19.8 22.4 
65 8.0 11.0 16.0 29.0 32.2 44.3 47.3 6.4 8.0 10.0 15.0 16.0 21.0 23.6 
14.2 19.0 22.0 32.0 36.0 52.5 56.8 4.0 6.0 8.0 15.0 17.0 23.5 24.5 
12.5 14.0 22.0 37.0 38.0 48.0 51.5 6.0 8.0 10.0 13.0 14.0 21.0 23.5 
75 2.5 5.0 7.0 22.0 27.0 44.0 49.0 6.5 9.0 10.0 13.0 14.0 22.0 23.0 
7.3 10.1 11.4 15.5 19.6 33.7 39.4 9.0 9.4 13.0 18.0 19.6 24.8 25.0 
2.0 4.0 14.6 35.0 35.0 46.8 50.4 1.6 3.2 7.0 13.0 13.8 20.0 20.0 
85 0.0 0.0 1.8 13.0 16.2 23.8 27.4 10.0 10.0 12.4 16.0 18.4 22.2 22.6 
11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 
12.7 14.3 17.6 27.5 30.8 40.7 42.3 12.1 12.3 12.6 13.5 13.8 14.7 14.9 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LTS = Long-Term Storage; STR = Short-Term Retrieval.

Table A3.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the CLTR and delayed recall scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85 years) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for women (W)

   CLTR
 
Delayed recall
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 14.2 15.2 16.0 24.0 28.4 38.8 45.4 7.6 8.0 8.8 11 12.0 12.0 12.0 
8.0 12.2 17.2 32.0 37.2 51.4 57.8 7.0 8.6 10.0 11 11.0 12.0 12.0 
15.7 21.5 27.2 44.5 49.8 58.7 64.3 8.7 10.0 10.0 12 12.0 12.0 12.0 
35 7.8 9.0 9.0 15.0 19.6 34.6 41.0 6.6 7.6 10.0 11 11.2 12.0 12.0 
17.6 19.3 22.0 28.0 31.4 35.9 45.9 6.7 8.1 9.0 11 11.0 12.0 12.0 
12.8 17.5 21.0 32.0 35.0 48.0 53.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 11 11.0 12.0 12.0 
45 8.1 10.6 12.0 20.0 21.8 35.4 37.0 5.9 6.0 7.8 10.0 12.0 12.0 
8.6 9.4 14.2 20.0 23.6 39.9 43.2 6.0 6.1 7.0 11 11.0 11.0 11.4 
10.2 13.4 15.4 34.5 40.4 43.6 45.9 6.7 8.4 9.8 12 12.0 12.0 12.0 
55 5.8 7.4 11.0 24.0 26.6 35.9 39.2 3.7 4.7 5.4 9.0 11.3 12.0 
3.0 5.8 12.8 26.0 28.8 48.4 51.6 4.4 6.0 6.0 10.0 11.6 12.0 
8.3 10.8 14.2 27.0 29.0 46.8 52.9 3.3 4.6 7.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 
65 0.7 3.0 7.0 18.5 22.0 36.0 40.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 
1.5 7.5 11.0 21.5 23.0 36.0 38.8 2.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 10.5 11.0 
7.0 8.0 9.0 22.0 24.0 34.0 36.5 3.0 3.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 12.0 
75 0.0 0.0 2.0 13.0 19.0 34.0 41.5 0.5 1.0 2.0 6.0 10.0 10.5 
1.1 2.2 4.0 10.5 11.6 21.9 28.7 1.1 2.1 3.0 4.6 6.0 6.9 
2.0 4.0 6.8 21.0 21.8 33.2 37.6 1.2 2.4 3.0 6.8 7.2 7.6 
85 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 11.0 14.2 16.6 1.4 1.8 2.0 3.8 6.2 6.6 
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
3.5 5.0 8.0 17.0 20.0 29.0 30.5 4.2 4.4 4.8 6.4 7.6 7.8 
   CLTR
 
Delayed recall
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 14.2 15.2 16.0 24.0 28.4 38.8 45.4 7.6 8.0 8.8 11 12.0 12.0 12.0 
8.0 12.2 17.2 32.0 37.2 51.4 57.8 7.0 8.6 10.0 11 11.0 12.0 12.0 
15.7 21.5 27.2 44.5 49.8 58.7 64.3 8.7 10.0 10.0 12 12.0 12.0 12.0 
35 7.8 9.0 9.0 15.0 19.6 34.6 41.0 6.6 7.6 10.0 11 11.2 12.0 12.0 
17.6 19.3 22.0 28.0 31.4 35.9 45.9 6.7 8.1 9.0 11 11.0 12.0 12.0 
12.8 17.5 21.0 32.0 35.0 48.0 53.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 11 11.0 12.0 12.0 
45 8.1 10.6 12.0 20.0 21.8 35.4 37.0 5.9 6.0 7.8 10.0 12.0 12.0 
8.6 9.4 14.2 20.0 23.6 39.9 43.2 6.0 6.1 7.0 11 11.0 11.0 11.4 
10.2 13.4 15.4 34.5 40.4 43.6 45.9 6.7 8.4 9.8 12 12.0 12.0 12.0 
55 5.8 7.4 11.0 24.0 26.6 35.9 39.2 3.7 4.7 5.4 9.0 11.3 12.0 
3.0 5.8 12.8 26.0 28.8 48.4 51.6 4.4 6.0 6.0 10.0 11.6 12.0 
8.3 10.8 14.2 27.0 29.0 46.8 52.9 3.3 4.6 7.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 
65 0.7 3.0 7.0 18.5 22.0 36.0 40.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 
1.5 7.5 11.0 21.5 23.0 36.0 38.8 2.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 10.5 11.0 
7.0 8.0 9.0 22.0 24.0 34.0 36.5 3.0 3.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 12.0 
75 0.0 0.0 2.0 13.0 19.0 34.0 41.5 0.5 1.0 2.0 6.0 10.0 10.5 
1.1 2.2 4.0 10.5 11.6 21.9 28.7 1.1 2.1 3.0 4.6 6.0 6.9 
2.0 4.0 6.8 21.0 21.8 33.2 37.6 1.2 2.4 3.0 6.8 7.2 7.6 
85 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 11.0 14.2 16.6 1.4 1.8 2.0 3.8 6.2 6.6 
2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 
3.5 5.0 8.0 17.0 20.0 29.0 30.5 4.2 4.4 4.8 6.4 7.6 7.8 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; CLTR = Consistent Long-Term Retrieval.

Table A4.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the RLTR score stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85 years) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for women and men

  Women
 
Men
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 5.2 6.0 6.0 13.0 14.6 19.0 21.0 3.5 7.0 7.0 14.0 14.0 24.0 30.5 
0.0 0.0 5.0 9.0 11.2 23.4 27.7 2.0 2.4 4.8 11.0 14.4 18.0 20.2 
0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 6.8 14.7 17.0 1.2 4.6 6.0 8.0 8.8 14.6 17.6 
35 8.0 8.8 12.0 17.0 19.0 26.8 29.2 1.1 2.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 18.3 19.9 
1.7 3.4 7.4 12.0 13.6 16.9 18.8 6.7 7.4 8.8 16.0 16.4 22.6 29.9 
2.5 4.0 5.0 8.5 10.0 15.5 16.8 2.1 4.0 4.2 8.5 9.6 20.9 21.0 
45 2.9 4.6 6.0 10.0 10.8 16.8 20.9 4.0 4.2 6.0 10.5 12.8 24.1 25.9 
3.6 5.1 6.4 9.5 10.6 17.7 21.6 1.5 3.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 16.0 21.0 
2.6 3.0 5.0 8.5 11.2 26.0 28.4 0.0 5.4 7.0 13.0 14.4 20.1 21.3 
55 0.0 1.4 3.0 8.5 10.0 13.3 17.1 0.0 0.0 0.8 8.0 8.0 17.0 17.1 
0.0 0.8 4.0 9.0 9.4 18.6 22.2 0.0 0.0 2.0 7.0 8.0 17.0 17.0 
0.6 2.6 3.0 6.0 9.0 17.4 18.7 3.8 4.0 5.0 8.0 9.0 14.5 16.8 
65 0.0 0.0 3.0 6.5 8.0 14.3 17.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 6.8 10.7 12.3 
1.5 3.5 4.0 8.0 9.0 15.5 17.2 1.8 2.0 3.6 8.0 8.0 14.0 14.5 
1.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 9.0 13.0 20.5 0.2 2.2 4.0 7.0 9.2 15.6 16.9 
75 0.0 0.0 2.0 5.0 6.0 11.0 12.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.0 7.8 14.0 
0.0 0.0 0.6 6.5 7.0 9.9 10.9 4.3 4.7 5.4 10.0 11.2 14.0 14.0 
0.0 0.0 1.8 9.0 9.8 12.8 14.4 3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 5.8 10.4 11.2 
85 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 5.2 7.4 8.2 2.6 3.2 4.4 6.0 6.6 13.6 14.8 
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.4 0.8 1.6 4.0 4.8 7.2 7.6 
6.2 6.4 6.8 8.0 8.4 9.6 9.8 3.5 7.0 7.0 14.0 14.0 24.0 30.5 
  Women
 
Men
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 5.2 6.0 6.0 13.0 14.6 19.0 21.0 3.5 7.0 7.0 14.0 14.0 24.0 30.5 
0.0 0.0 5.0 9.0 11.2 23.4 27.7 2.0 2.4 4.8 11.0 14.4 18.0 20.2 
0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 6.8 14.7 17.0 1.2 4.6 6.0 8.0 8.8 14.6 17.6 
35 8.0 8.8 12.0 17.0 19.0 26.8 29.2 1.1 2.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 18.3 19.9 
1.7 3.4 7.4 12.0 13.6 16.9 18.8 6.7 7.4 8.8 16.0 16.4 22.6 29.9 
2.5 4.0 5.0 8.5 10.0 15.5 16.8 2.1 4.0 4.2 8.5 9.6 20.9 21.0 
45 2.9 4.6 6.0 10.0 10.8 16.8 20.9 4.0 4.2 6.0 10.5 12.8 24.1 25.9 
3.6 5.1 6.4 9.5 10.6 17.7 21.6 1.5 3.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 16.0 21.0 
2.6 3.0 5.0 8.5 11.2 26.0 28.4 0.0 5.4 7.0 13.0 14.4 20.1 21.3 
55 0.0 1.4 3.0 8.5 10.0 13.3 17.1 0.0 0.0 0.8 8.0 8.0 17.0 17.1 
0.0 0.8 4.0 9.0 9.4 18.6 22.2 0.0 0.0 2.0 7.0 8.0 17.0 17.0 
0.6 2.6 3.0 6.0 9.0 17.4 18.7 3.8 4.0 5.0 8.0 9.0 14.5 16.8 
65 0.0 0.0 3.0 6.5 8.0 14.3 17.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 6.8 10.7 12.3 
1.5 3.5 4.0 8.0 9.0 15.5 17.2 1.8 2.0 3.6 8.0 8.0 14.0 14.5 
1.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 9.0 13.0 20.5 0.2 2.2 4.0 7.0 9.2 15.6 16.9 
75 0.0 0.0 2.0 5.0 6.0 11.0 12.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 4.0 7.8 14.0 
0.0 0.0 0.6 6.5 7.0 9.9 10.9 4.3 4.7 5.4 10.0 11.2 14.0 14.0 
0.0 0.0 1.8 9.0 9.8 12.8 14.4 3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 5.8 10.4 11.2 
85 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 5.2 7.4 8.2 2.6 3.2 4.4 6.0 6.6 13.6 14.8 
5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.4 0.8 1.6 4.0 4.8 7.2 7.6 
6.2 6.4 6.8 8.0 8.4 9.6 9.8 3.5 7.0 7.0 14.0 14.0 24.0 30.5 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test.

Table A5.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the TR and LTR scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for men

   TR
 
LTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 38.0 39.0 46.0 51.0 54.0 60.0 65.0 20.0 23.0 37.0 43.0 45.0 58.0 63.5 
38.1 39.4 43.8 50.0 51.0 57.6 60.3 21.8 26.2 29.8 41.0 43.0 54.6 56.3 
44.8 46.8 49.0 53.0 55.0 62.4 64.0 29.8 31.8 37.0 47.0 49.6 59.0 59.6 
35 35.9 39.2 41.2 44.0 44.0 57.8 60.4 19.8 22.1 23.0 31.5 32.6 48.9 53.6 
41.0 41.8 43.0 48.0 48.8 53.0 53.6 21.7 23.6 28.4 34.0 40.0 46.6 48.5 
33.3 39.7 49.2 56.0 57.6 60.9 61.0 10.7 25.5 31.8 49.0 51.2 56.0 56.0 
45 29.5 30.1 31.8 40.5 41.6 50.0 51.3 12.7 14.0 15.4 24.5 29.2 41.2 43.8 
28.5 29.0 29.0 38.0 45.0 55.0 59.0 5.5 8.0 14.0 23.0 30.0 47.0 52.5 
37.0 37.9 43.8 48.5 50.0 57.1 58.3 11.9 21.0 28.8 35.5 41.8 51.2 53.4 
55 30.0 33.6 37.6 43.0 44.0 47.0 47.4 2.0 14.6 18.0 26.0 29.2 37.0 37.4 
32.0 32.0 36.0 46.0 47.0 51.0 53.0 11.0 11.0 14.0 30.0 33.0 45.0 60.0 
34.0 36.0 39.0 41.0 42.0 50.5 52.2 13.8 14.0 15.0 24.0 32.0 46.0 48.8 
65 26.0 27.0 31.6 37.5 40.0 46.0 50.5 4.3 6.6 9.6 19.0 20.8 30.0 39.0 
31.5 33.6 34.6 39.0 43.8 50.4 52.1 9.4 11.6 13.6 24.0 25.8 39.2 40.5 
32.4 36.2 38.0 43.0 44.0 49.0 50.8 10.0 10.4 16.8 24.0 25.6 40.8 42.8 
75 12.6 15.2 25.4 32.0 35.2 45.8 46.4 0.0 1.2 6.4 14.0 16.4 30.4 31.0 
27.7 28.4 30.2 34.0 35.2 40.6 41.3 5.4 6.8 9.2 19.5 25.2 28.5 30.2 
21.0 23.0 25.8 31.0 31.8 40.8 48.4 6.4 6.8 7.0 11.0 11.0 25.8 37.4 
85 16.6 17.2 19.4 27.0 28.2 35.4 35.7 4.6 5.2 6.0 9.0 12.6 18.8 20.9 
25.1 25.1 25.2 25.5 25.6 25.9 25.9 0.4 0.8 1.6 4.0 4.8 7.2 7.6 
   TR
 
LTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 38.0 39.0 46.0 51.0 54.0 60.0 65.0 20.0 23.0 37.0 43.0 45.0 58.0 63.5 
38.1 39.4 43.8 50.0 51.0 57.6 60.3 21.8 26.2 29.8 41.0 43.0 54.6 56.3 
44.8 46.8 49.0 53.0 55.0 62.4 64.0 29.8 31.8 37.0 47.0 49.6 59.0 59.6 
35 35.9 39.2 41.2 44.0 44.0 57.8 60.4 19.8 22.1 23.0 31.5 32.6 48.9 53.6 
41.0 41.8 43.0 48.0 48.8 53.0 53.6 21.7 23.6 28.4 34.0 40.0 46.6 48.5 
33.3 39.7 49.2 56.0 57.6 60.9 61.0 10.7 25.5 31.8 49.0 51.2 56.0 56.0 
45 29.5 30.1 31.8 40.5 41.6 50.0 51.3 12.7 14.0 15.4 24.5 29.2 41.2 43.8 
28.5 29.0 29.0 38.0 45.0 55.0 59.0 5.5 8.0 14.0 23.0 30.0 47.0 52.5 
37.0 37.9 43.8 48.5 50.0 57.1 58.3 11.9 21.0 28.8 35.5 41.8 51.2 53.4 
55 30.0 33.6 37.6 43.0 44.0 47.0 47.4 2.0 14.6 18.0 26.0 29.2 37.0 37.4 
32.0 32.0 36.0 46.0 47.0 51.0 53.0 11.0 11.0 14.0 30.0 33.0 45.0 60.0 
34.0 36.0 39.0 41.0 42.0 50.5 52.2 13.8 14.0 15.0 24.0 32.0 46.0 48.8 
65 26.0 27.0 31.6 37.5 40.0 46.0 50.5 4.3 6.6 9.6 19.0 20.8 30.0 39.0 
31.5 33.6 34.6 39.0 43.8 50.4 52.1 9.4 11.6 13.6 24.0 25.8 39.2 40.5 
32.4 36.2 38.0 43.0 44.0 49.0 50.8 10.0 10.4 16.8 24.0 25.6 40.8 42.8 
75 12.6 15.2 25.4 32.0 35.2 45.8 46.4 0.0 1.2 6.4 14.0 16.4 30.4 31.0 
27.7 28.4 30.2 34.0 35.2 40.6 41.3 5.4 6.8 9.2 19.5 25.2 28.5 30.2 
21.0 23.0 25.8 31.0 31.8 40.8 48.4 6.4 6.8 7.0 11.0 11.0 25.8 37.4 
85 16.6 17.2 19.4 27.0 28.2 35.4 35.7 4.6 5.2 6.0 9.0 12.6 18.8 20.9 
25.1 25.1 25.2 25.5 25.6 25.9 25.9 0.4 0.8 1.6 4.0 4.8 7.2 7.6 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LTR = Long-Term Retrieval; TR = Total Recall.

Table A6.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the LTS and STR scores stratified by Age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85 years) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for men

   LTS
 
STR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 27.0 31.0 39.0 49.0 50.0 63.0 66.0 1.5 2.0 8.0 9.0 9.0 16.0 18.0 
23.9 28.0 33.0 43.0 45.8 59.0 59.3 2.0 4.0 6.8 9.0 10.4 17.2 19.5 
31.4 32.8 40.2 51.0 51.8 60.0 61.2 3.0 3.0 4.0 8.0 9.8 14.6 17.0 
35 21.6 22.4 26.6 32.0 33.2 48.8 53.6 6.8 9.0 9.2 12.5 13.6 19.8 20.9 
23.1 25.2 29.4 37.0 43.0 50.6 51.9 5.1 6.0 6.0 12.0 12.8 19.0 19.9 
13.7 27.4 33.0 52.5 54.6 57.9 58.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 8.2 18.6 19.0 
45 15.2 17.1 19.2 26.5 30.0 42.4 46.6 5.7 7.3 10.2 14.5 15.0 19.0 19.9 
7.0 10.0 15.0 29.0 33.0 51.0 54.5 6.5 8.0 9.0 15.0 15.0 26.0 26.0 
11.9 24.6 31.6 38.5 46.4 55.3 58.2 3.0 4.8 5.8 9.0 14.8 17.8 25.2 
55 3.0 14.7 18.8 30.0 31.2 40.3 43.0 8.8 10.8 11.8 16.5 17.0 26.2 28.0 
11.0 11.0 15.0 32.0 35.0 49.0 61.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 16.0 19.0 24.0 25.0 
16.8 18.0 19.0 26.5 36.0 50.0 50.8 5.8 6.5 9.0 16.5 17.0 22.5 23.8 
65 8.0 9.3 13.2 21.0 24.6 34.0 42.3 9.6 12.0 14.0 17.0 18.8 24.0 27.3 
11.4 13.6 17.0 25.0 29.6 42.0 42.6 9.7 10.8 12.2 17.0 17.0 23.0 23.1 
10.2 12.4 17.6 27.0 29.2 45.8 48.7 6.2 8.4 11.4 18.0 20.2 24.0 25.8 
75 0.0 1.2 8.4 17.0 21.0 31.6 35.0 9.2 11.0 14.0 17.0 18.0 23.8 25.8 
9.1 10.1 13.0 24.0 31.2 34.2 35.6 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.0 16.0 22.2 23.6 
7.8 8.6 9.6 14.0 14.8 26.8 38.4 7.8 8.6 13.2 16.0 16.8 24.4 25.2 
85 6.3 6.6 8.0 17.0 17.0 24.0 25.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 16.0 19.8 20.4 
0.6 1.2 2.4 6.0 7.2 10.8 11.4 17.4 17.9 18.8 21.5 22.4 25.1 25.6 
   LTS
 
STR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 27.0 31.0 39.0 49.0 50.0 63.0 66.0 1.5 2.0 8.0 9.0 9.0 16.0 18.0 
23.9 28.0 33.0 43.0 45.8 59.0 59.3 2.0 4.0 6.8 9.0 10.4 17.2 19.5 
31.4 32.8 40.2 51.0 51.8 60.0 61.2 3.0 3.0 4.0 8.0 9.8 14.6 17.0 
35 21.6 22.4 26.6 32.0 33.2 48.8 53.6 6.8 9.0 9.2 12.5 13.6 19.8 20.9 
23.1 25.2 29.4 37.0 43.0 50.6 51.9 5.1 6.0 6.0 12.0 12.8 19.0 19.9 
13.7 27.4 33.0 52.5 54.6 57.9 58.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 8.2 18.6 19.0 
45 15.2 17.1 19.2 26.5 30.0 42.4 46.6 5.7 7.3 10.2 14.5 15.0 19.0 19.9 
7.0 10.0 15.0 29.0 33.0 51.0 54.5 6.5 8.0 9.0 15.0 15.0 26.0 26.0 
11.9 24.6 31.6 38.5 46.4 55.3 58.2 3.0 4.8 5.8 9.0 14.8 17.8 25.2 
55 3.0 14.7 18.8 30.0 31.2 40.3 43.0 8.8 10.8 11.8 16.5 17.0 26.2 28.0 
11.0 11.0 15.0 32.0 35.0 49.0 61.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 16.0 19.0 24.0 25.0 
16.8 18.0 19.0 26.5 36.0 50.0 50.8 5.8 6.5 9.0 16.5 17.0 22.5 23.8 
65 8.0 9.3 13.2 21.0 24.6 34.0 42.3 9.6 12.0 14.0 17.0 18.8 24.0 27.3 
11.4 13.6 17.0 25.0 29.6 42.0 42.6 9.7 10.8 12.2 17.0 17.0 23.0 23.1 
10.2 12.4 17.6 27.0 29.2 45.8 48.7 6.2 8.4 11.4 18.0 20.2 24.0 25.8 
75 0.0 1.2 8.4 17.0 21.0 31.6 35.0 9.2 11.0 14.0 17.0 18.0 23.8 25.8 
9.1 10.1 13.0 24.0 31.2 34.2 35.6 10.0 10.0 10.0 14.0 16.0 22.2 23.6 
7.8 8.6 9.6 14.0 14.8 26.8 38.4 7.8 8.6 13.2 16.0 16.8 24.4 25.2 
85 6.3 6.6 8.0 17.0 17.0 24.0 25.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 13.0 16.0 19.8 20.4 
0.6 1.2 2.4 6.0 7.2 10.8 11.4 17.4 17.9 18.8 21.5 22.4 25.1 25.6 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LTS = Long-Term Storage; STR = Short-Term Retrieval.

Table A7.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 1 for the CLTR and delayed recall scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85 years) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High) for men

   CLTR
 
Delayed recall
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 4.0 6.0 9.0 30.0 34.0 43.0 56.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 
11.4 14.6 22.6 27.0 29.0 40.6 49.0 7.4 8.4 9.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
17.8 20.6 25.6 36.0 37.8 51.8 55.6 9.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 
35 8.6 9.2 11.4 20.5 22.8 40.8 49.2 6.0 6.1 7.0 9.0 9.6 11.9 12.0 
5.6 8.8 11.6 17.0 20.8 35.2 38.7 8.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 10.6 11.3 
4.1 7.2 21.0 37.0 39.6 49.7 50.0 9.0 9.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
45 2.2 4.2 6.4 17.0 18.2 25.5 26.9 4.5 5.0 5.4 8.0 8.6 10.9 11.0 
3.0 6.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 27.0 42.5 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 11.0 11.5 
2.0 9.2 14.4 23.0 25.0 41.3 44.9 5.9 6.0 7.0 9.5 11.0 12.0 12.0 
55 1.9 7.4 8.0 18.0 19.4 25.2 27.9 1.0 2.8 5.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 11.0 
7.0 8.0 11.0 16.0 19.0 37.0 58.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 
5.8 6.0 7.0 16.0 21.0 35.0 38.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 11.2 
65 1.3 2.0 7.0 15.5 17.6 24.7 29.5 0.7 1.3 2.0 4.0 4.0 7.0 9.0 
0.0 1.6 7.0 16.0 20.8 31.4 33.0 3.8 4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 8.4 10.0 
6.0 6.8 10.0 16.0 17.4 29.6 30.9 2.0 2.2 3.4 5.0 5.0 8.0 8.9 
75 0.0 0.0 1.4 9.0 12.0 22.8 25.2 0.0 1.2 2.0 4.0 5.0 6.8 7.0 
0.7 1.4 2.0 10.0 11.2 17.2 18.6 1.4 1.7 2.4 4.0 5.0 7.3 7.6 
0.4 0.8 1.6 4.0 5.6 22.8 34.4 0.8 1.6 2.0 3.0 3.0 6.8 8.4 
85 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 3.2 9.8 10.4 0.3 0.6 1.2 3.0 3.0 5.2 6.1 
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 
   CLTR
 
Delayed recall
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education Sex −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 4.0 6.0 9.0 30.0 34.0 43.0 56.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 
11.4 14.6 22.6 27.0 29.0 40.6 49.0 7.4 8.4 9.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
17.8 20.6 25.6 36.0 37.8 51.8 55.6 9.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 
35 8.6 9.2 11.4 20.5 22.8 40.8 49.2 6.0 6.1 7.0 9.0 9.6 11.9 12.0 
5.6 8.8 11.6 17.0 20.8 35.2 38.7 8.0 8.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 10.6 11.3 
4.1 7.2 21.0 37.0 39.6 49.7 50.0 9.0 9.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
45 2.2 4.2 6.4 17.0 18.2 25.5 26.9 4.5 5.0 5.4 8.0 8.6 10.9 11.0 
3.0 6.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 27.0 42.5 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 11.0 11.5 
2.0 9.2 14.4 23.0 25.0 41.3 44.9 5.9 6.0 7.0 9.5 11.0 12.0 12.0 
55 1.9 7.4 8.0 18.0 19.4 25.2 27.9 1.0 2.8 5.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 11.0 
7.0 8.0 11.0 16.0 19.0 37.0 58.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 
5.8 6.0 7.0 16.0 21.0 35.0 38.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 11.2 
65 1.3 2.0 7.0 15.5 17.6 24.7 29.5 0.7 1.3 2.0 4.0 4.0 7.0 9.0 
0.0 1.6 7.0 16.0 20.8 31.4 33.0 3.8 4.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 8.4 10.0 
6.0 6.8 10.0 16.0 17.4 29.6 30.9 2.0 2.2 3.4 5.0 5.0 8.0 8.9 
75 0.0 0.0 1.4 9.0 12.0 22.8 25.2 0.0 1.2 2.0 4.0 5.0 6.8 7.0 
0.7 1.4 2.0 10.0 11.2 17.2 18.6 1.4 1.7 2.4 4.0 5.0 7.3 7.6 
0.4 0.8 1.6 4.0 5.6 22.8 34.4 0.8 1.6 2.0 3.0 3.0 6.8 8.4 
85 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 3.2 9.8 10.4 0.3 0.6 1.2 3.0 3.0 5.2 6.1 
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; CLTR = Consistent Long-Term Retrieval.

Table A8.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 2 for the TR and LTR scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High)

  TR
 
LTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 41.7 42.4 43.4 44.0 44.4 51.4 54.2 23.8 25.5 27.8 31.0 32.0 41.4 47.7 
 43.8 45.0 49.6 53.0 53.0 58.0 59.2 28.0 31.8 36.2 44.0 44.8 52.6 56.2 
 46.0 48.0 50.0 56.0 58.0 64.0 65.0 31.0 35.0 38.0 47.0 51.0 60.0 62.0 
35 33.0 35.0 39.0 50.0 53.0 55.5 55.8 15.0 19.0 27.0 42.0 44.0 50.0 50.5 
 40.5 43.2 45.8 51.0 52.4 54.6 57.1 23.7 31.2 33.0 37.0 43.2 47.8 52.0 
 43.5 44.0 48.0 54.0 55.0 59.0 59.5 25.0 28.0 33.0 46.0 48.0 56.0 57.0 
45 33.4 37.4 39.0 44.0 46.2 53.2 55.2 11.8 16.2 22.6 28.0 28.8 42.8 47.2 
 33.2 35.5 36.0 43.0 46.0 53.2 58.6 14.8 16.6 17.8 30.5 31.4 44.9 53.4 
 40.1 41.0 44.2 49.5 51.6 58.4 59.0 14.4 23.2 29.0 38.0 38.0 53.7 54.9 
55 33.0 34.8 36.4 42.0 43.6 49.2 51.0 18.6 19.6 20.0 28.0 29.8 37.2 39.0 
 40.6 42.2 44.2 49.0 49.8 54.0 56.0 24.6 26.2 27.0 37.0 37.8 48.6 49.8 
 34.1 37.0 44.0 47.0 47.8 58.2 61.4 10.7 15.6 22.8 35.0 39.2 54.8 58.4 
65 26.0 29.9 30.8 40.0 42.4 49.1 52.2 7.9 12.5 14.8 26.5 29.8 39.0 41.3 
 25.5 28.9 40.6 44.0 44.8 50.0 51.7 7.3 9.3 19.6 29.5 31.0 39.7 43.4 
 34.0 36.0 40.4 47.0 49.0 57.0 59.6 16.2 18.2 21.6 34.0 39.0 52.6 55.2 
75 19.9 25.5 28.4 35.5 37.0 45.0 45.1 5.7 7.0 11.0 20.5 23.2 34.3 35.0 
 27.8 29.6 34.0 37.0 39.0 48.2 50.0 11.4 13.6 16.4 24.0 24.0 35.0 35.2 
 25.0 25.6 32.0 46.0 46.0 55.8 57.8 4.8 7.2 16.4 32.0 33.4 49.0 52.6 
85 16.8 18.5 24.0 32.0 33.2 36.8 38.9 4.8 6.5 10.8 19.0 20.2 25.1 27.5 
  TR
 
LTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 41.7 42.4 43.4 44.0 44.4 51.4 54.2 23.8 25.5 27.8 31.0 32.0 41.4 47.7 
 43.8 45.0 49.6 53.0 53.0 58.0 59.2 28.0 31.8 36.2 44.0 44.8 52.6 56.2 
 46.0 48.0 50.0 56.0 58.0 64.0 65.0 31.0 35.0 38.0 47.0 51.0 60.0 62.0 
35 33.0 35.0 39.0 50.0 53.0 55.5 55.8 15.0 19.0 27.0 42.0 44.0 50.0 50.5 
 40.5 43.2 45.8 51.0 52.4 54.6 57.1 23.7 31.2 33.0 37.0 43.2 47.8 52.0 
 43.5 44.0 48.0 54.0 55.0 59.0 59.5 25.0 28.0 33.0 46.0 48.0 56.0 57.0 
45 33.4 37.4 39.0 44.0 46.2 53.2 55.2 11.8 16.2 22.6 28.0 28.8 42.8 47.2 
 33.2 35.5 36.0 43.0 46.0 53.2 58.6 14.8 16.6 17.8 30.5 31.4 44.9 53.4 
 40.1 41.0 44.2 49.5 51.6 58.4 59.0 14.4 23.2 29.0 38.0 38.0 53.7 54.9 
55 33.0 34.8 36.4 42.0 43.6 49.2 51.0 18.6 19.6 20.0 28.0 29.8 37.2 39.0 
 40.6 42.2 44.2 49.0 49.8 54.0 56.0 24.6 26.2 27.0 37.0 37.8 48.6 49.8 
 34.1 37.0 44.0 47.0 47.8 58.2 61.4 10.7 15.6 22.8 35.0 39.2 54.8 58.4 
65 26.0 29.9 30.8 40.0 42.4 49.1 52.2 7.9 12.5 14.8 26.5 29.8 39.0 41.3 
 25.5 28.9 40.6 44.0 44.8 50.0 51.7 7.3 9.3 19.6 29.5 31.0 39.7 43.4 
 34.0 36.0 40.4 47.0 49.0 57.0 59.6 16.2 18.2 21.6 34.0 39.0 52.6 55.2 
75 19.9 25.5 28.4 35.5 37.0 45.0 45.1 5.7 7.0 11.0 20.5 23.2 34.3 35.0 
 27.8 29.6 34.0 37.0 39.0 48.2 50.0 11.4 13.6 16.4 24.0 24.0 35.0 35.2 
 25.0 25.6 32.0 46.0 46.0 55.8 57.8 4.8 7.2 16.4 32.0 33.4 49.0 52.6 
85 16.8 18.5 24.0 32.0 33.2 36.8 38.9 4.8 6.5 10.8 19.0 20.2 25.1 27.5 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; TR = Total Recall; LTR = Long-Term Retrieval.

Table A9.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 2 for the LTS and STR scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High)

  LTS
 
STR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 24.4 26.9 29.8 33.0 34.6 46.2 51.1 5.5 7.9 10.4 13.0 15.4 18.5 20.2 
 30.2 33.6 38.8 46.0 46.0 56.4 59.2 3.4 4.8 6.0 9.0 9.8 17.0 17.0 
 36.0 39.0 40.0 51.0 55.0 62.0 63.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 7.0 9.0 13.0 14.0 
35 16.2 20.5 29.0 44.5 47.0 51.5 51.8 5.2 5.5 6.0 8.0 9.0 16.0 18.0 
 27.8 35.4 36.0 41.0 44.6 49.2 52.7 4.4 5.8 7.8 11.0 12.4 14.6 18.9 
 26.5 30.0 35.0 49.0 51.0 57.0 60.0 2.0 2.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 18.0 18.5 
45 14.6 19.8 24.6 30.0 30.6 44.0 48.0 8.0 12.2 13.0 14.0 15.2 20.6 21.4 
 17.7 20.4 21.8 32.0 33.4 47.7 55.3 4.2 6.5 8.6 15.5 16.0 19.0 19.0 
 16.1 28.0 32.2 40.5 41.8 56.4 57.8 4.2 5.0 8.6 12.5 13.8 18.4 25.8 
55 22.8 23.0 23.0 30.0 31.0 39.4 40.4 11.6 12.0 12.0 14.0 15.2 18.8 20.0 
 28.0 28.0 28.6 41.0 41.0 49.4 50.2 2.8 5.6 8.8 13.0 13.0 16.4 17.2 
 13.4 17.8 25.4 38.0 42.8 58.0 60.1 3.0 3.4 4.0 11.0 13.8 21.6 24.1 
65 9.9 14.6 17.0 29.5 32.0 39.3 43.3 8.0 10.8 11.0 14.5 16.0 23.0 23.0 
 8.3 11.2 21.6 32.5 34.0 44.0 47.4 8.0 8.3 10.2 14.0 16.0 22.0 22.0 
 18.2 19.0 24.8 38.0 42.6 56.0 61.8 3.6 5.0 6.4 11.0 13.2 18.8 19.8 
75 6.0 8.7 12.4 21.0 25.2 36.0 37.1 7.8 8.7 10.4 15.0 16.2 22.3 24.4 
 13.4 16.2 18.4 26.0 27.0 36.4 37.4 12.0 12.0 13.2 15.0 15.6 19.4 20.0 
 5.6 7.4 17.4 35.0 38.2 51.0 53.6 4.6 5.2 7.2 14.0 14.2 21.8 22.0 
85 5.8 8.6 13.4 23.0 23.6 27.8 29.9 8.1 9.1 10.4 11.5 12.4 17.6 18.3 
  LTS
 
STR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 24.4 26.9 29.8 33.0 34.6 46.2 51.1 5.5 7.9 10.4 13.0 15.4 18.5 20.2 
 30.2 33.6 38.8 46.0 46.0 56.4 59.2 3.4 4.8 6.0 9.0 9.8 17.0 17.0 
 36.0 39.0 40.0 51.0 55.0 62.0 63.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 7.0 9.0 13.0 14.0 
35 16.2 20.5 29.0 44.5 47.0 51.5 51.8 5.2 5.5 6.0 8.0 9.0 16.0 18.0 
 27.8 35.4 36.0 41.0 44.6 49.2 52.7 4.4 5.8 7.8 11.0 12.4 14.6 18.9 
 26.5 30.0 35.0 49.0 51.0 57.0 60.0 2.0 2.0 5.0 9.0 10.0 18.0 18.5 
45 14.6 19.8 24.6 30.0 30.6 44.0 48.0 8.0 12.2 13.0 14.0 15.2 20.6 21.4 
 17.7 20.4 21.8 32.0 33.4 47.7 55.3 4.2 6.5 8.6 15.5 16.0 19.0 19.0 
 16.1 28.0 32.2 40.5 41.8 56.4 57.8 4.2 5.0 8.6 12.5 13.8 18.4 25.8 
55 22.8 23.0 23.0 30.0 31.0 39.4 40.4 11.6 12.0 12.0 14.0 15.2 18.8 20.0 
 28.0 28.0 28.6 41.0 41.0 49.4 50.2 2.8 5.6 8.8 13.0 13.0 16.4 17.2 
 13.4 17.8 25.4 38.0 42.8 58.0 60.1 3.0 3.4 4.0 11.0 13.8 21.6 24.1 
65 9.9 14.6 17.0 29.5 32.0 39.3 43.3 8.0 10.8 11.0 14.5 16.0 23.0 23.0 
 8.3 11.2 21.6 32.5 34.0 44.0 47.4 8.0 8.3 10.2 14.0 16.0 22.0 22.0 
 18.2 19.0 24.8 38.0 42.6 56.0 61.8 3.6 5.0 6.4 11.0 13.2 18.8 19.8 
75 6.0 8.7 12.4 21.0 25.2 36.0 37.1 7.8 8.7 10.4 15.0 16.2 22.3 24.4 
 13.4 16.2 18.4 26.0 27.0 36.4 37.4 12.0 12.0 13.2 15.0 15.6 19.4 20.0 
 5.6 7.4 17.4 35.0 38.2 51.0 53.6 4.6 5.2 7.2 14.0 14.2 21.8 22.0 
85 5.8 8.6 13.4 23.0 23.6 27.8 29.9 8.1 9.1 10.4 11.5 12.4 17.6 18.3 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; LTS = Long-Term Survival; STR = Short-Term Retrieval.

Table A10.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 2 for the CLTR and delayed recall scores stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High)

  CLTR
 
Delayed recall
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 9.4 11.9 14.4 19.0 20.4 32.0 39.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 9.2 10.6 11.3 
 8.6 19.4 21.6 30.0 31.8 44.2 50.4 7.4 8.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
 16.0 19.0 24.0 36.0 45.0 59.0 62.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 
35 6.0 8.0 12.0 28.0 32.0 42.0 46.5 9.2 9.5 10.0 11.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 
 4.8 8.4 12.8 27.0 28.8 40.8 49.9 5.1 6.8 8.0 11.0 11.4 12.0 12.0 
 16.0 19.0 20.0 30.0 35.0 48.0 53.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
45 3.0 4.6 12.2 16.0 18.2 28.2 33.4 5.0 5.2 6.0 7.0 8.2 10.0 10.4 
 5.9 6.8 7.8 14.0 16.0 31.0 44.5 3.9 4.8 5.8 8.5 9.4 12.0 12.0 
 6.2 7.6 10.8 27.0 32.2 41.4 46.2 4.3 6.0 8.6 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 
55 3.2 4.6 6.6 11.0 11.0 17.0 17.8 3.8 4.0 5.2 7.0 8.0 10.0 10.2 
 9.4 13.8 16.6 25.0 29.8 46.2 48.6 6.4 6.8 7.0 9.0 9.0 12.0 12.0 
 0.7 3.0 9.2 26.0 27.8 43.4 54.3 3.4 4.0 6.4 10.0 10.4 12.0 12.0 
65 0.0 2.9 5.8 17.0 21.4 30.0 32.5 3.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.1 10.0 
 2.0 2.9 8.4 20.5 22.8 30.7 35.2 2.2 3.3 4.0 6.0 6.8 10.1 11.0 
 7.8 9.0 11.4 21.0 23.6 39.8 45.2 2.6 3.2 5.0 8.0 8.0 12.0 12.0 
75 0.0 2.0 4.0 16.0 18.2 27.0 27.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 
 1.6 2.6 11.4 17.0 18.6 27.6 30.6 2.8 3.0 3.0 5.0 6.6 8.4 9.4 
 3.6 6.0 7.2 22.0 23.2 44.2 48.2 1.0 1.4 3.0 6.0 7.2 9.8 10.8 
85 2.4 2.7 5.0 10.0 11.0 17.5 19.2 1.1 2.1 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.9 5.9 
  CLTR
 
Delayed recall
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 9.4 11.9 14.4 19.0 20.4 32.0 39.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 9.2 10.6 11.3 
 8.6 19.4 21.6 30.0 31.8 44.2 50.4 7.4 8.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
 16.0 19.0 24.0 36.0 45.0 59.0 62.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 
35 6.0 8.0 12.0 28.0 32.0 42.0 46.5 9.2 9.5 10.0 11.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 
 4.8 8.4 12.8 27.0 28.8 40.8 49.9 5.1 6.8 8.0 11.0 11.4 12.0 12.0 
 16.0 19.0 20.0 30.0 35.0 48.0 53.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 12.0 
45 3.0 4.6 12.2 16.0 18.2 28.2 33.4 5.0 5.2 6.0 7.0 8.2 10.0 10.4 
 5.9 6.8 7.8 14.0 16.0 31.0 44.5 3.9 4.8 5.8 8.5 9.4 12.0 12.0 
 6.2 7.6 10.8 27.0 32.2 41.4 46.2 4.3 6.0 8.6 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 
55 3.2 4.6 6.6 11.0 11.0 17.0 17.8 3.8 4.0 5.2 7.0 8.0 10.0 10.2 
 9.4 13.8 16.6 25.0 29.8 46.2 48.6 6.4 6.8 7.0 9.0 9.0 12.0 12.0 
 0.7 3.0 9.2 26.0 27.8 43.4 54.3 3.4 4.0 6.4 10.0 10.4 12.0 12.0 
65 0.0 2.9 5.8 17.0 21.4 30.0 32.5 3.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.1 10.0 
 2.0 2.9 8.4 20.5 22.8 30.7 35.2 2.2 3.3 4.0 6.0 6.8 10.1 11.0 
 7.8 9.0 11.4 21.0 23.6 39.8 45.2 2.6 3.2 5.0 8.0 8.0 12.0 12.0 
75 0.0 2.0 4.0 16.0 18.2 27.0 27.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 
 1.6 2.6 11.4 17.0 18.6 27.6 30.6 2.8 3.0 3.0 5.0 6.6 8.4 9.4 
 3.6 6.0 7.2 22.0 23.2 44.2 48.2 1.0 1.4 3.0 6.0 7.2 9.8 10.8 
85 2.4 2.7 5.0 10.0 11.0 17.5 19.2 1.1 2.1 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.9 5.9 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; CLTR = Consistent Long-Term Retrieval.

Table A11.

Normative Spanish VSRT Form 2 for the RLTR score stratified by age group (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, and 85) and level of education (L = Low, A = Average, and H = High)

  RLTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 2.1 4.2 6.8 11.5 12.8 20.3 20.6 
 2.0 2.8 5.2 10.0 13.0 23.6 27.2 
 0.0 0.0 2.0 11.0 13.0 18.0 21.0 
35 1.8 3.5 7.0 11.5 15.0 18.0 19.0 
 2.1 3.8 6.6 14.0 17.0 21.6 23.5 
 0.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 12.0 18.0 22.5 
45 5.2 6.2 7.4 11.0 12.0 15.0 17.4 
 4.5 4.9 7.4 13.0 13.8 16.2 17.1 
 2.3 4.3 6.0 12.0 13.0 19.7 21.7 
55 8.8 9.6 10.2 16.0 17.0 25.0 25.6 
 1.2 2.4 4.2 11.0 11.0 16.4 17.2 
 2.7 3.0 4.6 11.0 14.2 23.0 23.3 
65 3.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 9.0 16.1 18.2 
 4.0 4.0 5.0 7.5 8.8 16.4 18.7 
 3.6 4.0 5.4 13.0 14.2 21.6 24.8 
75 0.0 0.0 2.4 5.5 6.0 10.6 14.1 
 2.0 2.6 3.2 5.0 5.6 12.6 15.2 
 1.8 3.0 3.4 6.0 7.6 15.8 18.2 
85 1.8 3.5 5.4 6.5 7.2 9.9 10.9 
  RLTR
 
Group variables
 
Z-values
 
Age Education −1.64 (5%) −1.28 (10%) −0.84 (20%) 0 (50%) 0.84 (60%) 1.28 (90%) 1.64 (95%) 
25 2.1 4.2 6.8 11.5 12.8 20.3 20.6 
 2.0 2.8 5.2 10.0 13.0 23.6 27.2 
 0.0 0.0 2.0 11.0 13.0 18.0 21.0 
35 1.8 3.5 7.0 11.5 15.0 18.0 19.0 
 2.1 3.8 6.6 14.0 17.0 21.6 23.5 
 0.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 12.0 18.0 22.5 
45 5.2 6.2 7.4 11.0 12.0 15.0 17.4 
 4.5 4.9 7.4 13.0 13.8 16.2 17.1 
 2.3 4.3 6.0 12.0 13.0 19.7 21.7 
55 8.8 9.6 10.2 16.0 17.0 25.0 25.6 
 1.2 2.4 4.2 11.0 11.0 16.4 17.2 
 2.7 3.0 4.6 11.0 14.2 23.0 23.3 
65 3.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 9.0 16.1 18.2 
 4.0 4.0 5.0 7.5 8.8 16.4 18.7 
 3.6 4.0 5.4 13.0 14.2 21.6 24.8 
75 0.0 0.0 2.4 5.5 6.0 10.6 14.1 
 2.0 2.6 3.2 5.0 5.6 12.6 15.2 
 1.8 3.0 3.4 6.0 7.6 15.8 18.2 
85 1.8 3.5 5.4 6.5 7.2 9.9 10.9 

Notes: The raw test score leading to a particular Z-value is given indicating the percentiles 5, 10, 20, 50, 60, 90, and 95. VSRT = Verbal Selective Reminding Test; RLTR = random long-term retrieval.