Abstract

Objective: To systematically generate the first and most comprehensive demographic-adjusted norms for the Trail Making Test (TMT) in Latin America. Method: The sample consisted of 3, 279 healthy subjects from 10 countries in Latin America that approximated the demographic distribution of the countries' populations. The majority of participants were women (61.3%), and the average age was 50.1 ± 20.0 years. The average length of education was 10.2 ± 5.6 years. Participants completed the TMT. Results: Two analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed differences in age and education among countries (p's < .001). Two ANOVAs adjusted by age and education then showed differences among countries in TMT-A, F(9, 3178) = 60.55, p < .001, and TMT-B performance, F(9, 3264) = 16.32, p < .001, suggesting the development of differential norms by country. Two regressions yielded effects for age (β = .388; p < .001) and education (β = −.440; p < .001) on the TMT-A (R2 = .439), and for age (β = .351; p < .001) and education (β = −.326; p < .001) on the TMT-B (R2 = .297). Age and education corrections were created, and a table of percentiles by country was calculated. In the table, percentiles for individual raw scores are generated by adding the corrections and looking up the resulting corrected score by country. Conclusion(s): This study was the first to create norms for the TMT across Latin America and include appropriate adjustments for age and education. These data represent a critical advance in the assessment of cognitive deficits among individuals with neurological conditions in Latin America.