Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between resilience and symptom reporting following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Method: Participants included 196 U.S. military service members (mean age = 29.2 years, SD = 8.4) who sustained a mTBI (78.8% 12 months post-injury). Three groups were derived based on self-reported resilience on the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale: low (n = 51), moderate (n = 71), and high (n = 74). Outcome measures included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Results: There were significant main effects for all NSI and PCL-C total scores and symptom clusters (all p < .05). Pairwise comparisons revealed that the low resilience group reported greater symptomatology compared to the moderate and high resilience groups on the NSI and PCL-C total scores, NSI affective cluster, and PCL-C avoidance and hyperarousal clusters (all p < .005; d = .44−.83). Additionally, the low resilience group reported greater symptomatology compared to the high resilience group on the NSI somatic/sensory and cognitive clusters, and the PCL-C re-experiencing symptom cluster (all p < .05; d = .53−.75). Using logistic regression analyses, both the NSI and PCL-C total scores were significant predictors of high versus low resilience groups (both p < .01). However, the NSI and PCL-C total scores more reliably predicted the high resilience group (85.1% and 83.8% correctly classified, respectively) compared to the low resilience group (41.2% and 43.1% correctly classified). Conclusion(s): These results suggest that service members who have low resilience endorse greater symptomatology following mTBI compared to those who have high resilience.