Objective: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric condition among military Veterans. Research suggests that PTSD is associated with various deleterious outcomes, such as impaired cognitive and social functioning. As such, the relationship between cognitive functioning and PTSD continues to be an important area of research inquiry. The present study investigated the relationship between PTSD and cognitive functioning among a military Veteran clinical sample. Method: This study was a chart review of neuropsychological data from a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Veterans were eligible if they had completed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the PTSD Checklist (PCL-M). The sample included 35 Veterans (29 male, 6 female; 66% Caucasian). The mean level of education was 13.54 years (SD = 2.17). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD and the learning and memory subtests of the RBANS, controlling for age and years of education. Results: Results revealed that many Veterans reported PTSD symptomatology (M = 52.3, SD = 17.42). Findings showed that the PCL-M was a significant predictor of performance on several learning and memory measures of the RBANS, including Figure Copy (B = −.042; p = .05), List Recall (B = −.07; p < .05), and Figure Recall (B = −.08; p < .05). A trend was also detected for Story Recall (B = −.06; p = .08). Conclusion: These findings suggest that PTSD is significantly related to verbal and nonverbal learning and memory amongst military Veterans, notably retrieval of new information. Given that PTSD is highly prevalent amongst this population, these findings suggest that Veterans may be at increased risk for memory impairments.