Objective : Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report problems with sleep and cognition. Our previous research suggests Veterans are at risk for developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to the general population. Both PTSD and OSA separately have been related to changes in cognition. This study aims to examine the relationship among PTSD, OSA, and memory and learning in older Veterans. Method: Participants in this study are 202 older male Veterans enrolled in a longitudinal PTSD study at the VA Palo Alto (mean age = 62.9, SD = 5.8). PTSD symptom severity was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). OSA was measured by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained from polysomnography. Rey Auditory Learning Test (RAVLT) and Weschler's Logical Memory were used as measures of auditory learning and memory respectively. Two general linear models assessed the main effects of PTSD and sleep apnea on auditory memory and learning. Results: Greater severity in AHI was significantly associated with auditory learning efficiency (RAVLT Trials 1−5, p = .0144).There were no significant effects found with PTSD symptom severity or auditory memory. Conclusion: In this sample, only OSA as measured by AHI was associated with decreased auditory learning efficiency. PTSD on learning and memory were not significant. In contrast, the current research literature indicates that PTSD has an effect on auditory memory. Additionally, there were no significant findings associated with the combined effects of PTSD and OSA on auditory learning and memory.