Objective: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented procedures to increase identification of possible deployment-related brain injury. Providers may increase risk for iatrogenic effects via reinforcement of misattributed cognitive complaints as injury-related when more likely explanations exist (e.g. psychiatric distress) without knowledge of expected outcomes for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). VHA providers' understanding of terminology (mTBI versus concussion) and perceived recovery times were evaluated. Perception of treatment needs and impact of educational resources on level of understanding were also examined. Method: Electronic survey was disseminated to VHA clinicians. Survey was comprised of knowledge-based questions including two brief vignettes that underwent three panel-reviews for content accuracy and relevance. Completed and partially completed surveys were analyzed using chi-squared, correlation, and regression. Results: Respondents were diverse in reported educational degree and worked in mental health (72%), specialty medicine (13%), primary care (6%), and social work (4%). Sixty-one percent believed concussion and mTBI were different diagnostic classifications. Sixty-seven percent of respondents believed typical recovery from mTBI takes greater than 3 months, while only 22% believed the same to be true for concussion. Of six common educational resources, none significantly correlated with accurate understanding of recovery time for both mTBI and concussion. When presented with a vignette, providers were significantly more likely to suggest a referral to Neurology than Mental Health, even when the mTBI/concussion occurred one year prior and a current psychiatric symptom was present. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate a lack of understanding for terminology and expected recovery outcomes for mild brain injury with more education needed.