Objective: Concussion is a non-structural brain injury, which results in physical and cognitive symptoms due to physiological changes within the brain (Giza & Hovda, 2001). Self-report symptom inventories, such as the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), are frequently used for assessment of symptoms following concussion (McLeod & Leach, 2001). However, recent research has highlighted concerns regarding symptom exaggeration (Kirkwood et al., 2014), particularly for self-report inventories (Iverson et al., 2010). The current study examines the relationship between subjective and objective memory following concussion. Method: Retrospective chart reviews were completed for 40 adolescent and young adult outpatients (aged 16.2 ± 2.7, 63% female) who completed a neuropsychological assessment battery due to post-concussion symptoms. Data were gathered for verbal comprehension (WISC-IV/WAIS-IV VCI), subjective memory (PCSS), and objective verbal (CVLT-C/CVLT-II discriminability) and visual (RCFT recognition) memory. Patients were grouped based on subjectively reported memory deficits: none-mild (PCSS = 0–2) and moderate-high (PCSS = 3–6) (Lovell et al., 2006). Results: Twenty-four patients (aged 16.3 ± 3.2, 54% female) reported none-mild memory deficits and sixteen patients (aged 16.1 ± 1.8, 75% female) reported moderate-severe memory deficits. No significant groups differences were noted for gender (χ21 = 1.778, p = 0.182), age [t(38) = 0.219, p = 0.828], and verbal comprehension [t(37) = 1.132, p = 0.265]. Furthermore, groups did not differ significantly on objective measures of verbal [t(37) = 0.219, p = 0.828] or visual [t(38) = 0.965, p = 0.341] memory, despite significant differences on subjectively reported symptoms [t(38) = −10.987, p < 0.001]. Conclusion: The lack of relationship between subjective report and performance on objective measures highlights the importance of thorough assessment following concussion. Further research should explore other factors that may be associated with higher subjective reports of memory symptoms following concussion.
Analysis of Subjective and Objective Memory Deficits Following Concussion
Arch Clin Neuropsychol (2015) 30 (6): 506-507.
25 August 2015
S Amedoro, J Guay, M McGrath, J Keaveney; A-59
Analysis of Subjective and Objective Memory Deficits Following Concussion. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2015; 30 (6): 506-507. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acv047.59
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