Objective: To delineate the effect of multiple mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) on anger in a military cohort with a well characterized head injury history. Method: 12,270 U.S. Army personnel completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2). TBI was determined using VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines through self-reported post-traumatic amnesia and loss or alteration of consciousness for lifetime head injuries (up to 6). Lifetime head injury classifications included no TBI history or history of 1, 2, or 3+ mTBI. Results: Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant between-group differences on all STAXI-2 subtests (p's < 0.001). Consistently, those with no mTBI exhibited less State and Trait anger than those with a history of mTBI; 1 mTBI did not differ from 2 mTBI, but those with 3+ mTBI exhibited more State and Trait anger than those with 1 mTBI. Comparisons between no mTBI and those with 1 or 2 mTBI revealed small effect sizes (Cohen's d) on State (d = −0.23) and Trait anger (d = −0.36). No mTBI versus 3+ mTBI showed a notable increase on both State (d = −0.39) and Trait anger (d = −0.60). Effect sizes were small between those with 1 or 2 mTBI and 3+ mTBI on State (d = −0.16) and Trait anger (d = −0.24). The odds of endorsing clinically significant elevations of anger increased with number of mTBI (1 mTBI: OR = 1.65, 2 mTBI: OR = 1.85, 3+ mTBI: OR = 2.39). Conclusion: Multiple mTBI significantly impact anger experience, expression, and control and increase the risk for clinically significant anger.
Effect of Multiple Mild Traumatic Brain Injury on the Experience and Expression of Anger in Military Personnel
M Hussain, J Bailie, B Ivins, W Cole, C Boyd, K Schwab; A-64
Effect of Multiple Mild Traumatic Brain Injury on the Experience and Expression of Anger in Military Personnel. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2015; 30 (6): 509. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acv047.64
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