Objective: To investigate differences in performance on index scores of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-2 between Children with Combined Type Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Method: Participants included 42 children diagnosed with ADHD, combined type and 36 Individuals diagnosed with Anxiety Disorders. The ADHD group included 74.9% male children and 25.1% females, with an average age of 8.58 (SD = 2.78) years of age, while the Anxiety group included 59% male children and 41% female children, and had an average age of 9.78 (SD = 2.63) years of age. Results: An independent samples T-test using a .05 level revealed significantly better performances from the Anxiety group than the ADHD group on the Verbal Memory Index (M = 102.86, SD = 13.77; M = 95.40, SD = 15.13) Visual Memory Index (M = 103.14, SD = 15.44; M = 95.67, SD = 16.23), Attention and Concentration Index (M = 98.52, SD = 13.3; M = 87.85, SD = 17.15), General Memory Index (M = 102.62, SD = 14.35; M = 91.68, SD = 15.16), Verbal Recognition Index (M = 96.07, SD = 16.24; M = 92.49, SD = 14.27), and General Recognition Index (M = 100.25, SD = 12.01; M = 90.15, SD = 17.04). The magnitude of the mean differences also ranged from moderate (d = .47) to strong, (d = .87). Conclusion: Overall, many of the index scores were significantly different between children with Anxiety and children with ADHD, with the Anxiety group consistently performing better on the WRAML-2. Attention, short term, and long term memory are associated with the pre-frontal cortex, and impairment in this area is often related to ADHD. Although children experiencing Anxiety may display some memory deficits, they are typically secondary to emotional distress. These differences in the function of the memory abilities may differentiate the better scores of children with Anxiety as compared to those with ADHD.
DEVELOPMENT AND PEDIATRIC: ATTENTION DEFICIT (HYPERACTIVITY) DISORDER
WRAML-2 Performance contrasts between Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type and Those with Anxiety Disorders
C Herman, M Pinjala, C Golden; DEVELOPMENT AND PEDIATRIC: ATTENTION DEFICIT (HYPERACTIVITY) DISORDER
WRAML-2 Performance contrasts between Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type and Those with Anxiety Disorders. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2015; 30 (6): 532-533. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acv047.125
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