Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine whether the relationship between ADHD subtype and internalizing and externalizing problems was accounted for by the hot executive functioning (EF) deficits in ADHD, specifically in emotional dysregulation (common in both subtypes) and behavioral dysregulation (affected in ADHD-C). Method: Participants included children with ADHD-PI (n = 80), ADHD-C (n = 66) and controls (n = 132), ages 8–12 years. Measures included BASC-2 Aggression, Conduct Problems, Anxiety, and Depression subscales and BRIEF Emotional Regulation and Behavioral Regulation subscales. Results: The MANCOVA was significant for group [Wilks' Lambda = .912, F(8, 540) = 3.17, p = .002], despite Emotional Regulation [Wilks' Lambda = .786, F(4, 270) = 3.17, p < .001] and Behavioral Regulation [Wilks' Lambda = .910, F(4, 270) = 3.17, p < .001] being significant covariates. Univariate analyses revealed emotional regulation was correlated with aggression, anxiety, and depression (ps < .01), whereas behavioral regulation was correlated with conduct problems, depression, and aggression (ps < .05). Subtype was significant for aggression [F(2, 273) = 7.08, p = .001] and conduct problems [F(2, 273) = 11.05, p < .001]. Pair-wise analysis with Sidak revealed that ADHD-C had worse aggression (−8.88–1.818, p = .001) and conduct problems (−10.67–3.43, p < .001) than controls. ADHD-C also had worse conduct problems than ADHD-PI (−8.06–0.78, p = .012). Conclusion: Our results suggest that ADHD-C is related to externalizing problems even when controlling for EF deficits in emotional/behavioral regulation, suggesting that factors besides hot EF deficits are important in explaining comorbid conduct problems in ADHD-C.
ADHD-C is Associated with Conduct Problems Even when Controlling for Hot EF Deficits
Arch Clin Neuropsychol (2015) 30 (6): 534.
25 August 2015
G Casher, M Kibby; B-33
ADHD-C is Associated with Conduct Problems Even when Controlling for Hot EF Deficits. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2015; 30 (6): 534. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acv047.129
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