Objective: To develop age adjusted norms for the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (M-WCST) in a group of illiterate adults from Latin America. Method: The sample consisted of 191 healthy adults from 6 countries (Colombia, Mexico, Honduras, Salvador, Bolivia and Chile) in Latin America. Inclusion criteria were to have a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≥23, have a Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (depression) score of ≤4, and have a Barthel Index of ≥90. Participants had to be illiterate (not able to read or write). The majority of the participants were women (59.5%), the average age was 62.55 ± 18.3 years (range 18-90), and the average education was 0.6 ± 1.30 years. Participants were asked to complete the M-WCST. Results: Three linear regressions showed significant effects for age on categories correct (β = −.145; p < .005; R2 =.016), perseverations (β = .194; p< .05; R2 =.032), and total errors (β= .191; p < .005; R2 =.031) on the M-WCST, suggesting the development of different norms for illiterate adults. To generate age-adjusted norms, three multinomial logistic regression were run and yielded main effects for age groups on the M-WCST scores (r2 Cox & Snell > .045, p's < .001). Thus, correction tables by age were created, and tables of percentiles were calculated based on the distribution of corrected scores Conclusion: To date, this is the first study to develop norms for the M-WCST in an illiterate population in Latin America, and to include appropriate adjustments for age. These data represent a critical advancement in the assessment in Latin American illiterate adults.
Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Normative Data for an Illiterate Adult Population from 6 Latin American Countries
J Arango-Lasprilla, D Rivera, S Schebela, L Esenarro, C Martinez, M Bringas, M Luna, B Rabago, P Saracho, M Garza, O Utria Rodríguez, P Perrin; C-12
Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Normative Data for an Illiterate Adult Population from 6 Latin American Countries. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2015; 30 (6): 567. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acv047.214
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