Objective: Subjective task-related distress and task engagement have been shown to correlate with performances on tests of working memory (Matthews & Campbell, 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether task-elicited changes in distress and engagement are deferentially associated with different indices of performance on a 2-Back task. Method: 39 college students (female = 27), ages 18 to 33 (M = 23.67, SD = 3.46) completed a 2-Back task from the NIH EXAMINER. The task generates three scores: d'Prime (index of discriminability), response style (tendency toward commission vs. omission errors), and total errors. The short version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire was administered before and after the 2-Back to assess changes in task-related distress and task engagement; difference scores (pre minus post) were used to index change. Results: Decreases in task engagement were associated with increases in total errors [r(34) = .368, p < .027]; increases in task-related distress were associated with decreases in discriminability (d' prime), more total errors, and a trend for a less conservative response style (increases in commission errors) [r(34) = .493, p = .002; r(34) = −.348, p = .038; r(34) = .289, p = .088; respectively]. Conclusion: These results show that decreases in engagement lead to an increase in all types of errors (i.e., both commission and omission), whereas increases in task-related distress result in an increase in commission errors. While this could mean that individuals who are impulsive become more distressed, it is also possible that distressed states lead to an increase in state impulsivity.