Objective: To identify the neurocognitive abilities that relate to word retrieval ability among younger and older adults. Method: Subjects were 30 younger (18-32; M = 19.83) and 30 older adults (60–93; M = 73.77) from the Dallas community who were non-depressed, native English-speakers, without history of brain injury, learning disorder, or neurological disorder. Subjects completed a naming-to-definition task, where they indicated whether they know (K) or don't know (DK) the target word, or are experiencing tip-of-the-tongue (TOT). Subjects then completed four neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Vocabulary, WAIS-IV Digit Span, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and Animal Fluency. Results: Vocabulary was significantly correlated (p < .01) with retrieval ability overall and within each age group, so we conducted partial correlations controlling for vocabulary. Overall, retrieval success was significantly correlated with phonemic (r = .31, p = .02) and semantic (r = .30, p = .02) fluency, and semantic fluency also correlated with TOTs (r = −.29, p = .03). Among older adults, semantic fluency correlated with retrieval success (r =.40, p = .03) and TOTs (r = −.42, p = .02), phonemic fluency correlated with number of non-retrieved words (r = −.38, p = .04), and age correlated with retrieval success (r = −.50, p = .01). Among younger adults, none of these relationships between cognitive performance and retrieval were significant. Conclusion: These findings suggest these cognitive measures relate differently to retrieval in younger and older adults. Verbal fluency and age predict retrieval ability only among older, but not younger adults.