Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Need for Cognition (NFC) on memory performance. NFC is a personality trait that measures how much an individual enjoys effortful thinking. NFC is only moderately related to intelligence. Method: Data from 168 undergraduate participants was utilized. The mean age was 21 (SD 3.8), mean IQ was 110 (SD 11.1), and 74% female and predominantly white. Subjects were excluded if English was a secondary language, they had auditory or visual impairment, or a psychiatric diagnosis. Participants completed the WMS-III and the NFC short form (Cacioppo, Petty, & Kao, 1984). A median split was performed that resulted in high and low NFC groups. Results: Pearson correlations revealed that NFC was significantly associated with only WMS-III General Memory Index (r = .222), Logical Memory I (r = .239), and Logical Memory II (r = 242); all other correlations with WMS-III subtests were not significant. Independent samples t-test found significant differences between the high and low NFC groups for performance on Logical Memory I [t(166) = −3.26, p = .001] and Logical Memory II [t(166) = −3.65, p < .001]. The effect size for these differences were d = .5 to .6 with the higher NFC group performing better. Conclusion: The impact of individual differences in personality on cognitive performance is understudied. Our results illustrate that the trait NFC significantly affects performance on memory test that have a story format but not other tests of memory. This is possibly because higher NFC results in more effortful processing of contextual information.