Objective: To evaluate the utility of a performance-based test (PBT), the 2 × 3 Multi-Level Action Test (2 × 3), as an assessment measure for individuals with mild to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). 2 × 3 performance for individuals with TBI who report difficulties in everyday functioning was compared to healthy control participants. The associations between 2 × 3 performance, traditional neuropsychological measures (NPs), and self-reported deficits were examined. Method: This prospective observational study was conducted at a metropolitan medical center. Forty-four adults living in the community qualified. Participants completed self-report measures (demographic and health questionnaire; BISQ; BRIEF; BDI-II), the 2 × 3, and NPs (RBANS-B, WCST-SF, TMT-A & B, D-KEFS Tower, Color-Word, and Design Fluency) in a 2-hour session. The 2 × 3 requires completing three tasks twice (packing a lunchbox, wrapping a present, and making toast). Results: 2 × 3 data were available for 28 participants (15 TBI; 13 control). TBI participants exhibited a range for task accomplishment (46 to 100%) and overall score (4 to 18). Preliminary analyses showed significant group differences with TBI participants completing the tasks slower (t(25) = 2.34, p = .03) and making more action addition errors (t(26) = 2.42, p = .02). 2 × 3 performance and self-report were significantly related to executive function NPs. TBI participants with more self-reported organizational difficulties took longer to complete the 2 × 3 (r(13) = .74, p < .001). Conclusions: This study shows promise for the 2 × 3 to be used with individuals with TBI, particularly as a range of performance was exhibited, not suggesting ceiling and floor effects. Relationships between 2 × 3 performance and other measures are important for establishing construct validity. More research would be helpful to decipher additional information this PBT may provide about individuals’ deficits and functioning.
Traumatic Brain Injury-3
Performance-Based Assessment of Executive Functioning in Traumatic Brain Injury
C Elliott, R Sy, J Fidelman, L Spielman, W Gordon; Traumatic Brain Injury-3
Performance-Based Assessment of Executive Functioning in Traumatic Brain Injury. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2016; 31 (6): 579. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acw042.15
Download citation file:
© 2017 Oxford University Press×