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Style Guide for Authors


Abstract The title page should include a short abstract, one paragraph in length. The abstract should not be divided into sections, nor should it contain abbreviations or footnotes.

Keywords Please provide a short list (between three and six entries) of keywords after the abstract.

Short title The author should suggest a short title for inclusion on running heads.

Author details The manuscript should include the author’s postal address and email address (as well as fax number and telephone number if available) on a separate, unnumbered page. The corresponding author should be indicated on the separate page, and co-authors should provide details of their institutional affiliations.


Section headings should be brief and self-explanatory. Headings and sub-headings should be kept to a minimum and unnumbered.


Style In general the journal follows the recommendations of the MLA Style Manual. Further information on the key elements of MLA style can be found at the following unofficial site www.docstyles.com. For the comprehensive style details we recommend authors refer to the official MLA site at: www.mla.org. For specific instructions on style contact the Editor at the above address.

Presentation Manuscripts should be typewritten with wide margins and all material should be double-spaced including notes, references, extracts and figure legends. Do not divide words at the ends of lines. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a separate page.

Spelling Follow Oxford English (using ‘ized’ rather than ‘ised’, but 'analysed', 'enfranchised'). If in doubt, consult the Concise Oxford English Dictionary.

Commas Use the Oxford, or ‘serial’, comma, e.g. 2-, 3-, and 5-min intervals.

Numbers Spell out one to one hundred; thereafter use numerals. Use a comma separator for numbers over one thousand (i.e. 1,234).

Dates Use the date-month-year style, i.e. 11 December 1979. Where necessary, use the style 19 BC; AD 565. For date ranges, follow 1972-77, but 1898-1901.

Hyphenation Consult the MLA Style Manual for standard usages.
Prefixes that require hyphenation include: best-known work, ill-informed reporter, lower-priced tickets, well-dressed announcer, two-thirds majority, pre-1960s, post-Victorian, non-ASA, re-cover, anti-icing, non-film, writer-critic, scholar-athlete, eighteenth-century thought, nineteenth- and twentieth-century literature.
Prefixes that do not require hyphenation include: filmmaker, thoughtfully presented thesis, much maligned performer, too hasty judgment; antiwar, coworker, semiretired, underrepresented, nonjudgmental, multinational, postwar, overpay.

Capitalization should be used for words that are normally upper case (proper nouns, etc.).

Italicization should be used to refer to the titles of books, journals and films, and may be used for emphasis – e.g. on the first appearance of a keyword. Words and letters that are referred to as words or letters should also be italicised (e.g. “The term American Indian ...”).

Acronyms and abbreviations should be given in full on their first appearance, and should not be explained in titles, headings or figure legends. Common abbreviations such as etc., e.g., and i.e. may be used only in parentheses. In the text write for example (e.g.); and so forth (etc.); that is (i.e.). If an acronym is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, FBI, ESP).

Quotations Use single quote marks, with punctuation falling outside the marks, unless contained within the quote itself.

In-text references Only provide the author name in the citation (without year, unless year is needed to distinguish between two works by the same author). A page number is usually cited only with a direct quotation. Refer to books in the following manner: (Jacobson and Waugh 210–15); (Daiches 2: 776–77; Eldritch 115); and to films thus: Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960).

Endnotes are denoted by superscript numbers in the text and explained in Notes section (before the Acknowledgements and References sections). Please use endnotes sparingly, and do not use them to indicate references.


Reference list should be organised alphabetically by author, then by title; films referred to in the text should be included in the list, alphabetically by title. If you use EndNote and/or Reference Manager to facilitate referencing citations (not required for submission), this journal's style is available for use.

Article Use the style: Solé, Yolanda. “Valores aspectuales en español.” Hispanic Linguistics 4 (1990): 57–85.

Chapter Use the style: Murphy, Robert. “A Revenger’s Tragedy—Get Carter.” British Crime Cinema. Eds. Steve Chibnall, and Robert Murphy. London: Routledge, 1999: 123-133.

Magazine article Use the style: Wilson, Edward O. “Back from Chaos.” Atlantic Monthly Mar. 1998: 41–62.

Book Use the style: Naremore, James. More Than Night: Film Noir in its Contexts. Berkeley: California UP, 1998.

Film Use the style: Ran. Dir. Akira Kurosawa. USA. 1985.

Webpage Use the following style, giving the web address within angle brackets:
The Walt Whitman Hypertext Archive. Ed. Kenneth M. Price and Ed Folsom. 1997–1998. 27 Apr. 2003. <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/archive1/works/>.

Bradshaw, Peter. “Film review: Toy Story 3Guardian.co.uk 15 July 2010. 23 July 2010. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/jul/15/toy-story-3-review/>.


Figures Figures should be numbered (in arabic numerals) and uploaded as a separate file. These figures should be listed on a separate page at the end of the text in the order in which they should appear, along with the figure caption detailing the source of the figure and, if necessary, any copyright information. For information on file formats, image resolution and permissions, see our Instructions for Authors.

Tables Please provide any tables in a separate file, with an explanatory legend, and indicate where the table should appear in the printed article.

Other media Adaptation welcomes the submission of supplementary material in other forms of media, for example audio or video clips. Please contact the editorial office directly if you are interested in submitting supplementary media files. Note that authors will need to obtain permission from the copyright holder to use any material of this kind.

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