The aim of this article is to examine the direct and indirect links between production efficiency and farmers’ health. Using a sample of male farm leaders, the role of both genders’ health in production efficiency is measured. More specifically, the effect of the farm household’s health through the direct effect of the male farmer’s health and the indirect effect of the woman’s health on production efficiency is examined. An increase in the frequency of illness of the female in the family farm decreases production efficiency, suggesting distinct gender roles in the agricultural household.

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