A. G. Wheeler, Jr., Gary L. Miller; Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Heteroptera: Coreidae), a Specialist on Magnolia Fruits: Seasonal History, Habits, and Descriptions of Immature Stages. Ann Entomol Soc Am 1990; 83 (4): 753-765. doi: 10.1093/aesa/83.4.753
Known distribution and host plants of Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Westwood) are reviewed, and new state and host records are added. The immature stages are described and illustrated. Seasonal history was monitored in central Pennsylvania on Magnolia macrophylla Michaux and M. tripetala L. in 1985; additional observations on habits were made in the eastern United States during 1976-1985. Overwintered adults appeared on host trees in mid-June to early July. Females laid eggs in chainlike masses on foliage with oviposition lasting about 4 wk, and nymphs (except the nonfeeding first instars) fed on developing and mature fruits. First and second instars clustered on leaves and fruits and, if disturbed, reformed aggregations within 1-5 min. Adults appeared in early August, remained on magnolias, and fed on seeds until late September. The species was univoltine. L. fulvicornis was difficult to rear in the laboratory on excised magnolia fruits; based on limited data, the developmental time from egg to adult was about 42 d. The only natural enemies observed were the egg parasitoids Gryon carinatifrons (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Anastatus reduvii (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), and an immature crab spider (Thomisidae) that attacked a third instar.