The effectiveness was compared of ‘Classroom’ Reality Orientation presented (1) once daily, in groups; (2) twice daily, in groups; and (3) once daily, individually. On a questionnaire measure of orientation all three versions produced significantly greater improvement than that found in an untreated control group, but did not differ in their relative effectiveness. Similarly, the three versions did not differ in their effectiveness when used with patients of varying degrees of deterioration.

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