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Information for Authors

Age and Ageing is an international journal publishing refereed original articles and commissioned reviews on geriatric medicine and gerontology. Its range includes research on human ageing and clinical, epidemiological, and psychological aspects of later life.

The Editor welcomes submissions which follow the Instructions to Authors. Manuscripts not meeting all of the requirements outlined below cannot be considered for publication and may be returned to the authors for completion.

For support and more information please contact the Age and Ageing Editorial Office. The Editorial Manager is Katy Ladbrook. 

Tel: 077913 91979 
Fax: 0117 3721875 
E-mail: aa@bgs.org.uk

Instructions to Authors

The editors and publisher reserve the right to reject manuscripts which do not conform to policies of Age and Ageing or Oxford University Press. Submissions may be modified or shortened by the Editor before acceptance for publication.

Manuscripts should conform to the Uniform Requirements of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors .

For reporting of randomised trials, authors are advised to work to the guidelines in the CONSORT statement .

Age and Ageing is a member of the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE) www.publicationethics.org.uk. In accordance with the code of conduct we will report any cases of suspected plagiarism or duplicate publishing. Age and Ageing uses plagiarism detecting software.

Article categories

All articles must conform to our formatting guidelines and not exceed the word count limit for its category. Where the author wishes to exceed the word limit or use a large data set, we may be able to accommodate additional information on our web site as Supplementary Data if the paper is accepted.

Manuscripts must be submitted electronically via the journal's online submission system .

Research Papers:

Should report original findings and include a structured abstract using appropriate headings. Those including original data may be sent for peer review. A maximum of 2500 words of text, plus abstract, 30 references, 3 tables or figures.

Short Report:

A shorter article which should report original findings. Short Reports may contain no more than 2 tables or figures, a maximum of 1500 words and 30 references. Short Reports include an abstract and are fully citable. Authors of longer articles may be invited to re-submit a shorter version of their manuscript for publication in this section. Those including original data may be sent for peer review.

Reviews and Systematic Reviews:
We are particularly interested in reviews of any whole field or aspect of geriatric medicine or gerontology that is of relevance to our mainly clinical readership. These should be authoritative and identify any gaps in our knowledge or understanding. Systematic Reviews must contain a brief section entitled “Search strategy and selection criteria.” This should state clearly: the sources (databases, journal or book reference lists, etc) of the material covered, and the criteria used to include or exclude studies – for example, English language only or studies conducted after a specific date. Maximum 3000 words, 30 references, 250 word structured abstract, 4 tables or figures.

It is recommended that authors work to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidance, and all systematic reviews must be accompanied by a completed checklist (available at http://www.prisma-statement.org/ ) which should be included as a supplementary file at the time of submission.


While most of our editorials are commissioned to relate to papers appearing in the journal, we also welcome editorials that deal with important topics on which the author would like to express an opinion, i.e. 'hot' topics. Maximum 1000 words and 15 references.


Clinical guidelines are designed to help practitioners and patients decide on the most appropriate healthcare, including providing information on both benefits and risks. Their development should be systematic and evidence-based. As well as stand-alone guidelines, the journal publishes commentaries on high-quality clinical guidelines that are relevant for geriatric medicine.

Guidelines can be submitted in two formats:
• Stand-alone Clinical Guidelines (3000 words, 30 references, 4 tables/figures)
• Commentary Clinical Guidelines (1500 words, 15 references, 1 table/figure)

Case Reports:
Clinically interesting cases should be written in a maximum of 600 words (plus 125 word abstract) with no more than 1 figure or table and maximum of 5 references. Case reports should be of conditions that provide new insight, describe rare but modifiable disorders or present new treatments or understanding. Case reports are usually peer-reviewed.

Clinical Reminders:
Very short and simple resumes of Case Reports that are not unusual enough to be published in full, but are still useful messages that could be of use to general readers and juniors. Clinical Reminders should be of no more than 150 words, 1 small table or figure and 3 references. They do not contain abstracts or Key Points.

Qualitative Research Articles / Qualitative Reviews:
We welcome qualitative research papers that offer a fresh understanding of topics in any area of geriatric medicine or gerontology, and that are of relevance to our mainly clinical readership. Articles should be methodologically rigorous, offer new perspectives/data on ‘old’ problems or extend current knowledge in particular ways. Maximum 4000 words (including illustrative data), 30 references, 250 word structured abstract, 3 tables or figures.

New Horizons articles:
Authoritative reviews intended to highlight recent and potential future developments in understanding of ageing and clinical, epidemiological, and psychological aspects of later life. 3,000 words, 30-50 references and up to 3 tables or figures. The reviews in this series carry the heading 'New Horizons in XXXX'.

Commentaries include debate articles, long comments or personal observations on current research or trends in gerontology or geriatric medicine that is likely to be of interest to Age and Ageing readers. Maximum 1500 words, 15 references and 1 table or figure.

Letters to the Editor:
We welcome lively, provocative, stimulating and amusing letters on general points of interest, as well as comments on and criticisms of articles previously published in the journal. This correspondence offers an opportunity for feedback, debate and the promotion of ideas for future articles. Letters should be no more than 450 words, 5 references, 1 table or figure. There are two types of letter:  

  1. Comments: Letters which are primarily commenting, criticising or expanding on an article previously published in the journal. Please locate the article on the journal website - www.academic.oup.com/ageing, and click on the "Add Comment" button at the end of the article.
  2. Letters to the Editor: Letters on a general point of interest, not primarily related to an article we have published. Please submit via Manuscript Central.

Formatting guidelines

General Points:

  • We prefer submission of papers as one integral document – please avoid sending your table, figures etc as separate files if possible.
  • We operate double blind peer review, so your submission must be anonymous. Please be careful to remove all author details from the document including from the file name.
  • A cover letter is not required to accompany the submission of your journal. Any queries or specific points for consideration should be communicated with the Editorial Manager on aa@bgs.org.uk.
  • Please remove line and page numbering from your manuscript.

Key Point and Keywords:
When submitting your manuscript you will be asked to provide 3-5 Keywords and 3-5 Key Points (short sentences which summarise the main message of your paper).

These Key Words and Points are for indexing purposes, to help your paper be more easily discovered in internet searches. Choosing these Key Words and Points carefully can help readers to find your published work. For more information and advice on how to optimise your paper’s search terms, please see this editorial from Annals of Work Exposures and Health.

All papers, reviews and case reports must include an abstract. On publication these sections are made freely available online and therefore are an important opportunity to draw in the reader. Headings might include background, objective, design, setting, subjects, methods, results, conclusions.

References should be numbered in order of citation and cited in the text by numbers in square brackets. They should be listed in the reference list in the form prescribed in the Uniform Requirements (giving the names and initials of all authors, unless there are more than six, when the first three should be given, followed by et al.). Provenance of laboratory and biochemical equipment specifically mentioned in the text of your paper must also be provided, including full contact details of manufacturers.

Please note that references to Wikipedia pages are not accepted in the journal.

Please provide a title for each table or figure. If your paper is accepted you may be asked to send electronic versions of any illustrations as high-resolution image files. Degree of magnification should be indicated where necessary. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to ensure that any requirements of copyright and courtesy are fulfilled in reproducing illustrations and appropriate acknowledgements included with the captions. Please note that authors may be required to pay for colour reproduction of figures in the printed version of the journal.

Third-Party Content in Open Access papers:      
If you will be publishing your paper under an Open Access licence but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content
Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]

This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.

Please ensure all abbreviations are defined at first usage, scientific measurements are in SI units, and approved names are used for drugs. Please try to avoid abbreviations wherever possible. In particular, avoid using them in the abstract. If abbreviations are essential, ensure that they are defined at first usage.

Try to avoid language that might be deemed unacceptable or inappropriate (e.g. 'older people' is preferred to 'the elderly', the word 'senile' is best avoided). Take care with wording that might cause offence to ethnic or cultural groups.

Language editing:      
If your first language is not English, you may wish to have your paper professionally edited. This will ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing is optional and does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here . Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

Supplementary data

Where the author wishes to exceed the word limit, use a large data set, or a longer list of references we may be able to accommodate additional information on our web site as Supplementary Data. This should be referenced in the paper as Appendices. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content.

If, for example the limit for your manuscript is 30 references and you have exceeded this, please select the 30 most important references for the reference list. Do not change the numbering of your references, just produce a shorter list of 30 for inclusion in the manuscript. Create an appendix for the full list of references which will be published online as part of the supplementary data. The printed version of your article will include a link to the full reference list appendix on the journal website.

Tables or Figures:
If, for example the limit for your manuscript is 3 tables or figures, select the 3 most important and assign the rest as supplementary data. You should reference each of the omitted tables/figures as appendices and insert the following type of instruction in the printed version of the paper. Eg:

"...please see the table Appendix 2 in the supplementary data on the journal website http://www.ageing.oxfordjournals.org/ "

Upload the supplementary tables or figures separately to the main body of the paper, clearly marked as Supplementary Data.

Bodies of Text:

If you are required to edit down the length of your paper, you may want to select sections of text to be Supplementary Data. These sections (for example, methodology) will be removed from the printed version of your paper but be left in the online version that will be published on our website. Please label the sections of Supplementary data as appendices and insert an instruction to the readers from the place where the data is removed. Eg:

"...please see Appendix 3 in the supplementary data on the journal website (http://www.ageing.oxfordjournals.org/)..."

Upload the supplementary text files separately to the main body of the paper, clearly marked as Supplementary Data.

There is also a possibility of instead paying extra page charges incurring where the typeset article exceeds the limit for its category. Please contact the Editorial Office for more information.

Publication requirements

Author Statements:
Whatever section your submission belongs to, it will be subject to certain legal and ethical submission requirements including:

  • Author consent
  • Duplicate publishing
  • Patient/ research participant consent
  • Conflicts of interest
  • Declaration of sources of funding
  • Ethics committee approval
  • Clinical trial registration

Submissions not meeting all of the requirements cannot be considered for publication and may be returned to the authors for completion.

At the point of acceptance, all authors will be asked to give signed consent to publication, to confirm that they have approved the final version and have made all required statements and declarations. For reference, a copy of the Authors' Statement form can be downloaded here click here . Accepted manuscripts will not be able to proceed to publication until signed statements from all authors have been received.

Patient / Next of Kin Consent:
If the manuscript contains images or personal medical information about an identifiable living individual, we will require the patient's consent for publication in Age and Ageing journal and website. If the patient cannot be traced then the information or image must be anonymised so that neither the patient nor anyone else could identify the patient with certainty. If the patient is dead we require permission from the next of kin.

If the text or images within the manuscript contain personal medical information about an identifiable individual, appropriate consent should be obtained.

Declaration of Sources of Funding:      
All sources of funding must be disclosed at the end of the Methods section or, if there is no Methods section, as an acknowledgement at the end of the text, under the heading ‘Declaration of Sources of Funding’. Authors must also describe what role their financial sponsors played in the design, execution, analysis and interpretation of data, or writing of the study. If they played no role the authors should state this.

The following rules should be followed:

- The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
- The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘National Institutes of Health’, not ‘NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number xxxx]’
- Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]’
- Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
- Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'

Crossref Funding Data Registry:
In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here .

Proofs are sent to authors for the correction of printer's errors only. Authors making extensive alterations will be required to bear resulting costs. Offprints of a paper can be claimed using the Oxford Journals Author Services site. Electronic offprints are supplied free to the first named author on publication.

Licence to publish:      
It is a condition of publication in the journal that authors assign copyright to the British Geriatrics Society. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In assigning licence, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [hfygr667789].’

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See Depositing articles in repositories – information for authors for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Open Access option for authors

Age and Ageing authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative ; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in Age and Ageing can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licences:

• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC BY-NC)
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.
Charges for CC BY:

• Regular charge: £2150/ $3400 / €2800
• List B Developing country charge*: £1075/ $1700 / €1400
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC BY-NC/CC BY-NC-ND:

• Regular charge: £1850/ $3000 / €2450
• List B Developing country charge*: £925/ $1500 / €1225
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

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