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Over the last ten years, modern agricultural biotechnology has been adopted rapidly at the global level, including in several developing countries. This trend has been most apparent for genetically modified (GM) crops. While the first GM crops were officially commercialized in the United States in 1995, in 2004 GM crops were already grown by more than 8 million farmers in seventeen countries on a total area of 81 million hectares (James). This is the fastest diffusion of any new crop technology in the history of humankind. The most widely used GM technologies involve herbicide tolerance (HT) applied in soybean and canola, and insect resistance, based on genes isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), applied in maize and cotton. Recent studies about the agronomic and economic impacts demonstrate that on average adopting farmers benefit from income increases through reduced pest control...

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