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Sodium and Health Virtual Collection

Sodium is an essential nutrient. However, concern about the adverse consequences of excess dietary intake has led authorities to recommend increasingly restrictive sodium intake. Indeed, current guidelines recommend less than 2300 mg/d for all, and less than 1500 mg/d for roughly 50% of Americans. These levels are far below the mean intakes of 3600 mg/d consumed by 90% of the world’s population.

In 2013, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) reviewed the evidence linking sodium intake to health outcomes and concluded that concern existed for sodium intakes of less than 1500mg/d, and there was insufficient evidence to determine whether intakes of less than 2300 mg/d were harmful or beneficial.

Since that report, findings from 3 studies, a modeling exercise, and a reanalysis of epidemiological data from an earlier clinical trial have been published. Their results confirm and add to new evidence to the issues raised in the IOM report.

This free collection will be supplemented at regular intervals with the latest research, in order to provide those in the field with an up-to-date, authoritative, and accessible resource on the topic.


Dietary Sodium: Where Science and Policy Diverge
Michael H. Alderman

Sodium Intake and Renal Outcomes: A Systematic Review
Andrew Smyth, Martin J. O'Donnell, Salim Yusuf, et. al

Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality: A Meta-Analysis
Niels Graudal, Gesche Jürgens, Bo Baslund, and Michael H. Alderman

Normal Range of Human Dietary Sodium Intake: A Perspective Based on 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion Worldwide
David A. McCarron, Alexandra G. Kazaks, Joel C. Geerling, Judith S. Stern, and Niels A. Graudal

Sodium and Cardiovascular Disease: What the Data Show
Paul K. Whelton and Lawrence J. Appel

What Level of Sodium Intake Worsens Renal Outcomes?
Michael S. Lipkowitz and Christopher S. Wilcox

Systematic Review of Health Outcomes in Relation to Salt Intake Highlights the Widening Divide Between Guidelines and the Evidence
Kei Asayama

Association of Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion with Blood Pressure
Andrew Mente, Martin J. O'Donnell, Sumathy Rangarajan, Matthew J. McQueen, et. al

Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Events
Martin O'Donnell, Andrew Mente, Sumathy Rangarajan, Matthew J. McQueen, et. al

Global Sodium Consumption and Death from Cardiovascular Causes
Dariush Mozaffarian, Saman Fahimi, Gitanjali M. Singh, Renata Micha, et. al

Lower Levels of Sodium Intake and Reduced Cardiovascular Risk: The Challenge to Achieve Lower Sodium Recommendations
Nancy R. Cook, Lawrence J. Appel and Paul K. Whelton

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