Immunotherapy, broadly classified as anti-cancer treatments that potentiate the immune system’s ability to recognize and destroy cancer cells, is now a standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Monoclonal antibodies directed against the T-cell inhibitory receptor PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 are available from several companies and have supplanted, for many patients, chemotherapy as the superior treatment option within a given line of therapy. To be sure, the clinical development of these drugs has been explosive. 2010 marked the first report of a clinical response to PD-1 blockade (not quite an objective partial response) in a patient with stage IV NSCLC [1]. From this starting point to now six years later, three drugs are FDA approved for the...

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