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Information for Authors

Estonian translation

Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright licence to publish form online


Scope of the journal

Annals of Botany is published for the Annals of Botany Company by Oxford University Press. Experimental, theoretical and applied papers on all aspects of plant science are welcome. The submitted manuscript or its essential content must not have been published previously or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. To merit publication in Annals of Botany, contributions should be substantial, written in clear English and combine originality of content with potential general interest. Submission of manuscripts that report small incremental advances or are of geographically local interest only is discouraged unless the implications of the findings are wide-reaching. Agronomic papers are expected to contain a substantial amount of basic plant biology. In general, a paper is unlikely to be accepted unless the referees and editors involved in its evaluation are enthusiastic about the science. The Covering Letter is an essential part of all submissions. It should include an ~60 word summary of the scientific strengths of the paper that the author(s) believe qualify it for consideration by Annals of Botany .

Language editing

If English is not your first language, you may wish to have your manuscript edited for language before submitting it. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. There are many specialist language editing services available and you can find these easily by searching online. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


Authors pay no fees or page charges unless electing for our Open Access scheme (see below for details). The corresponding author receives a free copy of the issue of the Journal in which their paper appears and a unique URL that gives access to a PDF (Portable Document Format) file of their article. Offprints can be ordered using the Oxford Journals Authors Services site. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number. Colour photographs and graphics are also printed without charge where their use enhances scientific content or clarity.

Open Access

Annals of Botany authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. Annals of Botany offers extremely competitive rates for Open Access publication, supported by its not-for-profit status aiming to promote botanical science. Corresponding authors/institutions can choose to pay a subsidized rate of £1050/ $1700 / €1400, and open access is further discounted or free for developing countries (click here for a list of qualifying countries). After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in Annals of Botany can use the following Creative Commons licences for their articles:

  • Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY)
Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

If you choose the Open Access option you can pay the Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. Open access charges can be viewed here in detail.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Types of article

Standard research papers (‘ORIGINAL ARTICLES’) and ‘TECHNICAL ARTICLES’ should not normally exceed ten printed pages. A ‘REVIEW’ submitted speculatively should generally have fewer than 25 printed pages. Opinion papers (‘VIEWPOINT’) and ’RESEARCH IN CONTEXT’ articles are also welcome: the latter category is for papers that combine a review/overview of a subject area with original research that moves the topic forward. ‘INVITED REVIEWS’ (generally up to 25 pages) and ‘BOTANICAL BRIEFINGS’ (up to 6 pages) are published by invitation only. Note that with the exception of Botanical Briefings, which are intended as short reviews, the number of pages suggested here is a guideline: in all cases the length of an article should be appropriate to its scientific content. The journal also publishes book reviews, but these are by invitation only (see Publishers' Books for Review ).

Information about reviews

As with all papers for Annals of Botany, reviews should carry an important message. Articles for reviews might fit any of the following appropriate article types: Reviews, Viewpoints, Botanical Briefings and Research-in-Context (see below for a brief outline of each type). We ask you to write an article that is focussed and accessible for research, teaching and information across our readership of professional botanists, and normally include intellectual and practical implications, maybe suggesting novel research directions. We are not prescriptive and there will be a different balance and length in each review – with Viewpoints more opinionated but nevertheless rigorous, and reviews approaching meta-analysis, reanalysis of data or integration of previous work are encouraged. Applied, analytical, policy-driven and overview papers are also welcome.

Reviews should be novel, rigorous and "make a difference" to plant science. We want you to use your expertise and judgement to discuss new work and ideas, develop new hypotheses, expand and support models, or explain what is important and the implications and future for a field. Each paper cited should carry an important message. We are not looking for blow-by-blow and exhaustive coverage of a large field (as would be the case for e.g. Annual Reviews or Current Plant Biology). The articles must have informative titles and abstracts, will invariably be illustrated, normally including one or more conceptual/summary figures. Colour will be free, all articles will be reviewed as appropriate for their content, and will be freely downloadable without subscription.

Reviews should place the subject in context, include the most up-to-date references available and add significantly to previous reviews in the topic with a critical overview of the topic. A review will move forward research in the topic. They are generally up to around 12,000 words in length, or typically 40 to 60 manuscript pages, and must include appropriate figures to help illustrate the topic.

Research in Context should combine a review/overview of a subject area with original research that moves the topic forward; i.e. it is a hybrid of review/research papers. Typically it contains an extended Introduction that provides a general overview of the subject area before incorporating new research results (potentially even meta-analyses) that move the subject forward, with a Discussion that may propose general models, discuss impact of the research and future opportunities. Research in Context papers are typically the length of a long “normal” research paper, up to about 10,000 words and should be illustrated.

Viewpoints should present clear, concise and logical arguments supporting the authors’ opinions, and in doing so help stimulate discussions within the topic. A typically Viewpoint would be about 4,000 words in length and should include at least one figure (e.g. a schematic to illustrate the point being made).

Botanical Briefings are concise, perhaps more specialized reviews and usually cover topical issues, maybe involving some controversy. They are much shorter in length (4000–6000 words) and normally have a limit of 40 references.

Summary of submission processes

Submission management and evaluation of submitted manuscripts will involve the Journal's online manuscript submission system. The manuscript text should be prepared in English (see PREPARING THE ARTICLE FILE below for details) and submitted online starting from our login page. Figures, tables and other types of content should be organized into separate files for submission (see PREPARING TABLE and FIGURE FILES , SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FILES and VIDEO FILES below for details). If you are using the online submission system for the first time please go to the login page and generate a login name and password after clicking on the “ First time authors only should register here ” link. If you are already registered but need to be reminded of your login name or password please go to the login page and click on “ Unknown/Forgotten password?”. There is extensive guidance available throughout the submission process. To make use of this guidance please click on the “Author Instructions” link or the “Tips” link situated at the top of every screen. In addition, there are frequent context-sensitive help points throughout the site that can be opened by clicking on the following symbol ?.

If you are unable to access our web-based submission system, please contact the Editorial Office (e-mail: office@annbot.com) for alternative methods of submitting your paper. The postal address is Annals of Botany Editorial Office, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RB, UK.

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Preparing a covering letter

Each submission should be accompanied by a Covering Letter formatted in MS Word (file type DOC) or in Rich Text Format (file type RTF). The letter should include contact details of the corresponding author, the title and authorship of the paper, and should state if the paper is a first submission, revision or a resubmission. It must also include an ~60 word summary of the scientific strengths of the paper that the author(s) believe qualify it for consideration by Annals of Botany . The manuscript reference number must be given if the paper is a revision or resubmission. If the paper is a revised or resubmitted manuscript, the letter should explain what changes have been made to the manuscript and where changes requested by the Handling Editor and referees have not been carried out. Any other information to which authors wish to draw the Chief Editor’s attention should also be included in this letter.


Authors should observe high standards with respect to publication ethics. The Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Any cases of ethical misconduct are treated very seriously and will be dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines. Further information about OUP’s ethical policies followed by Annals of Botany is available here . All work submitted to Annals of Botany should be novel, rigorous and substantial, and the Editors may make plagiarism checks at any time after submission.

The corresponding author agrees by submission of a manuscript that 1) the work is free of plagiarism and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; 2) all authors have agreed to publication in Annals of Botany ; 3) all those contributing substantial ideas and work have been appropriately acknowledged or given co-authorship; 4) all addresses and institutional affiliations are complete and correct; 5) all national laws relating to the research have been complied with; 6) funding sources and conflicts of interest have been appropriately acknowledged; and 7) authorization to publish all parts of the submission from employers, intellectual property or copyright holders, funders, and others is given. A published paper subsequently found not to have fulfilled all of these criteria may be retracted or, at the journal's sole discretion, a correction may be published. We reserve the right to charge authors the full original cost of publishing any subsequently retracted paper, or the cost of publishing any correction.


(Always consult a recent issue of Annals of Botany for layout and style)

Text should be typed using size 12 Times New Roman or Courier, double-spaced throughout and with an approx. 25 mm margin. All pages should be numbered sequentially. Each line of the text should also be numbered, with the top line of each page being line 1. The article file should be in PC-compatible Microsoft Word - file type DOC [please make sure the "Language" is "English (U.K)" via Tools → Language → Set Language]. RTF files are also acceptable. Please do not use the Windows Vista DOCX format: if you have created the text in this format, please save the files as RTF before submitting them. Please do not submit PDFs, desktop publishing files or LaTeX files. The article file should include a list of any figure legends but exclude any figures themselves – these should be submitted separately, with each figure in a separate file. Tables should be included at the end of the article file, in a Word format and not embedded as an image/picture. For more details see below under PREPARING TABLE and FIGURE FILES, SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FILES AND VIDEO FILES .

It is NOT journal style to have footnotes within articles. Any such notes must be incorporated into the main text, for example within brackets or as a separate paragraph.

The first page should state the type of article (e.g. Original Article, Technical Article) and provide a concise and informative full title followed by the names of all authors. Where necessary, each name should be followed by an identifying superscript number ( 1, 2, 3 etc.) associated with the appropriate institutional address to be entered further down the page. For papers with more than one author, the corresponding author's name should be followed by a superscript asterisk*. The institutional address(es) of each author should be listed next, each address being preceded by the relevant superscript number where appropriate. A running title of not more than 75 characters, including spaces, should also be provided, followed by the e-mail address of the corresponding author. Please follow the layout used for the first page of papers published in Annals of Botany .

The second page should contain a structured Abstract not exceeding 300 words made up of bulleted headings. For ‘ORIGINAL ARTICLES’ these heading will normally be as follows:

  • Background and Aims
  • Methods
  • Key Results
  • Conclusions

Alternative bulleted headings, such as ‘ Background ’, ‘ Scope ' and ' Conclusions ', are also acceptable for ‘REVIEWS’, ‘INVITED REVIEWS’, ‘BOTANICAL BRIEFINGS’, ‘TECHNICAL ARTICLES’ papers and ‘VIEWPOINT’ papers.

The Abstract should be followed by between three and 12 Key words that include the complete botanical name(s) of any relevant plant material. If many species are involved, species groups should be listed instead. Note that essential words in the title should be repeated in the key words since these, rather than the title, are used in some electronic searches. Title , Abstract and Key words should be self-explanatory without reference to the remainder of the paper.

The third and subsequent pages should comprise the remaining contents of the article text. ‘ORIGINAL ARTICLES’ will usually have the structure INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and LITERATURE CITED followed by a list of captions to any figures.

The RESULTS section should not include extensive discussion and data should not be repeated in both graphical and tabular form. The DISCUSSION section should avoid extensive repetition of the RESULTS and must finish with some conclusions.

Abbreviations are discouraged except for units of measurement, standard chemical symbols (e.g. S, Na), names of chemicals (e.g. ATP, Mes, Hepes, NaCl, O 2 ), procedures (e.g. PCR, PAGE, RFLP), molecular terminology (e.g. bp, SDS) or statistical terms (e.g. ANOVA, s.d., s.e., n , F , t -test and r 2 ) where these are in general use . Other abbreviations should be spelled out at first mention and all terms must be written out in full when used to start a sentence. Abbreviations of scientific terms should not be followed by a full stop. Use the minus index to indicate 'per' (e.g. m –3 , L –1 , h –1 ) except in such cases as 'per plant' or 'per pot'. If you decide that a list of abbreviations would help the reader, this should be included as an Appendix.

Units of Measurement. Use the Systéme international d'unités (SI) wherever possible. If non-SI units have to be used, the SI equivalent should be added in parentheses at first mention. For units of volume, expressions based on the cubic metre (e.g. 5 × 10 –9 m 3 , 5 × 10 –6 m 3 or 5 × 10 –3 m 3 ) or the litre (e.g. 5 μL, 5 mL, 5 L) are acceptable, but one or other system should be used consistently throughout the manuscript. Typical expressions of concentrations might be 5 mmol m –3 , 5 μM (for 5 μmol L –1 ), or 25 mg L –1 . The Dalton (Da), or more conveniently the kDa, is a permitted non-SI unit of protein mass.

Names of plants must be written out in full (Genus, species) in the abstract and again in the main text for every organism at first mention (but the genus is only needed for the first species in a list within the same genus, e.g. Lolium annuum , L. arenarium ). The authority (e.g. L., Mill., Benth.) is not required unless it is controversial. Guidance for naming plants correctly is given in The International Plant Names Index and in The Plant Book: a Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants (1997) by D.J. Mabberley (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-414210-0). After first mention, the generic name may be abbreviated to its initial (e.g. A. thaliana ) except where its use causes confusion.

Any cultivar or variety should be added to the full scientific name e.g. Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneymaker' following the appropriate international code of practice. For guidance, refer to the ISHS International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (2004) edited by C.D. Brickell, B. R. Baum, W. L. A. Hetterscheid, A. C. Leslie, J. McNeill, P. Trehane, F. Vrugtman, J. H. Wiersema (ISBN 3-906166-16-3).

Once defined in full, plants may also be referred to using vernacular or quasi-scientific names without italics or uppercase letters (e.g. arabidopsis, dahlia, chrysanthemum, rumex, soybean, tomato). This is often more convenient.

Items of Specialized Equipment mentioned in MATERIALS AND METHODS should be accompanied by details of the model, manufacturer, and city and country of origin.

Numbers up to and including ten should be written out unless they are measurements. All numbers above ten should be in numerals except at the start of sentences. Dates should be in the form of 10 Jan. 1999, and Clock Time in the form of 1600 h.

Mathematical equations must be in proper symbolic form; word equations are not acceptable. Each quantity should be defined with a unique single character or symbol together with a descriptive subscript if necessary. Each subscript should also be a single character if possible, but a short word is permissible. For example, a relationship between plant dry mass and fresh mass should appear as M d = 0.006 M f 1.461 , where M d is plant dry mass and M f is plant fresh mass; and not as DM = 0.006 FM 1.461 .

The meaning of terms used in equations should be explained when they first appear. Standard conventions for use of italics only for variables should be followed: normal (Roman) font should be used for letters that are identifiers. Thus in the above example, M is the variable quantity of mass, the subscripts d and f are identifiers for dry and fresh respectively.

Special note regarding ‘Equation Editor’ and other software for presentation of mathematics . Symbols and equations that are imported into Word documents as embedded objects from other software packages are generally incompatible with typesetting software and have to be re-keyed as part of the proof-making process. It is therefore strongly advisable to type symbols and equations directly into MS Word wherever possible. Importing from other software should ideally be confined to situations where it is essential, such as two-line equations (i.e. where numerators and denominators cannot be set clearly on a single line using ‘/’) and to symbols that are not available in Word fonts. This will minimize the risk of errors associated with rekeying by copyeditors.

Summary statistics should be accompanied by the number of replicates and a measure of variation such as standard error or least significance difference. Analysis of variance is often appropriate where several treatments are involved. Presentation of an abridged ANOVA table is permissible when its use illustrates critical features of the experiment.

Chemical, biochemical and molecular biological nomenclature should be based on rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) . Chapter 16 of Scientific Style and Format. The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers 6th edn., by Edward J. Huth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47154-0) gives guidelines.

Sequence information. Before novel sequences for proteins or nucleotides can be published, authors are required to deposit their data with one of the principal databases comprising the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration: EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database , GenBank , or the DNA Data Bank of Japan and to include an accession number in the paper. Sequence matrices should only be included if alignment information is critical to the message of the paper. Such matrices can be in colour but should not occupy more than one printed page. Larger matrices will only be printed by special agreement but may more readily be published electronically as Supplementary Information (see below).

Gene nomenclature. Species-specific rules on plant gene nomenclature are available for:

Otherwise, Annals of Botany adopts the following conventions for abbreviations: each gene abbreviation is preceded by letters identifying the species of origin. Lower-case italics should be used for mutant genes (e.g. Rp-etr1 ); upper-case italics (e.g. Le-ACO1 ) for wild-type genes; upright lower-case for proteins of mutated genes (e.g. Le-adh1); and upright upper-case for proteins of wild-type genes (e.g. At-MYB2). It may often be helpful to readers if the names of genes or gene families are spelled out in full at first mention.

Citations in the text. These should take the form of Felle (2005) or Jacobsen and Forbes (1999) or (Williamson and Watanabe, 1987; Rodrigues, 2002 a , b ) and be ordered chronologically. Papers by three or more authors, even on first mention, should be abbreviated to the name of the first author followed by et al. (e.g. Zhang et al ., 2005). If two different authors have the same last name, give their initials (e.g. NH Kawano, 2003) to avoid confusion. Only refer to papers as 'in press' if they have been accepted for publication in a named journal, otherwise use the terms 'unpubl. res.', giving the initials and location of the person concerned. (e.g. H Gautier, INRA, Lusignan, France, unpubl. res.) or 'pers. comm.' (e.g. WT Jones, University of Oxford, UK, ‘pers. comm.’)

The LITERATURE CITED should be arranged alphabetically based on the surname of the first or sole author. Where the same sole author or same first author has two or more papers listed, these papers should be grouped in year order. Where such an author has more than one paper in the same year , these should be ordered with single authored papers first followed by two-author papers (ordered first alphabetically based on the second author's surname, then by year) , and then any three-or-more-author papers (in year order only). Italicized letters ' a ', ' b ', ' c ', etc., should be added to the date of papers with the same first authorship and year.

For papers with six authors or fewer, please give the names of all the authors. For papers with seven authors or more, please give the names of the first three authors only, followed by et al .

Each entry must conform to one of the following styles according to the type of publication.


Öpik H, Rolfe S. 2005. The physiology of flowering plants. Physicochemical and environmental plant physiology , 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapters in books

Scandalios JG. 2001. Molecular responses to oxidative stress. In: Hawkesford MJ, Buchner P, eds. Molecular analysis of plant adaptation to the environment . Dordrecht: Kluwer, 181-208.

Research papers

Popper ZA, Fry SC. 2003 . Primary cell wall composition of bryophytes and charophytes. Annals of Botany 91 : 1–12.

Papers published online ahead of print

Forster MA, Ladd B, Bonser SP. 2011. Optimal allocation of resources in response to shading and neighbours in the heteroblastic species, Acacia implexa. Annals of Botany , in press. doi:10.1093/aob/mcq228.
NB include the doi number: a search for the doi will always be directed to the most recent version, so the reader will be able to find the final published paper as soon as it appears.

Online-only journals

Aizen MA, Morales C, Morales JM. 2008. Invasive mutualists erode native pollination webs. PloS Biology 6: e31. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060031.
NB include the doi number after the volume and article number.


Tholen D. 2005. Growth and photosynthesis in ethylene-insensitive plants . PhD Thesis, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Anonymous sources

Anonymous . Year. Title of booklet, leaflet, report, etc. City: Publisher or other source, Country.

References to websites should be structured as: Author(s) name, author(s) initial(s). year. Full title of article . Full URL. Date of last successful access (e.g. 12 Jan. 2003)

Acknowledgements. In the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, please be brief. 'We thank . . .' (not 'The present authors would like to express their thanks to . . .').

Funding information. Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See http://www.oxfordjournals.org/for_authors/repositories.html for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Crossref Funding Data Registry
In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here .

If elaborate use is made of units, symbols and abbreviations, or a detailed explanation of one facet of the paper seems in order, further details may be included in a separate APPENDIX placed after the LITERATURE CITED.
For more detail and information on types of files required for text, graphics and tables etc., please see the next section.

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Each figure, video and set of supplementary information should be prepared as a separate file on your computer in preparation for online submission. Tables should be included at the end of the Word file containing the main text (see below). Towards the bottom of the first submission screen of the online submission system, you should enter the appropriate number of files you have in each category. This creates the spaces (boxes) that will accommodate the files when they are uploaded later. The files are categorized as ‘Colour Figures’, ‘Black and White Figures’, ‘Supplemental Material’ and ‘Video’.

Tables. The best guide for laying out tables and diagrams are papers in a recent issue of Annals of Botany . Tables should be placed at the end of the main text file after the Literature Cited, and include a complete caption above the table and be numbered Table 1, Table 2 etc. according to the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. When preparing tables, adopt the 'Tables' set-up in MS Word, using one cell for each datum cluster (e.g. 12.2 ± 1.65) and avoid the use of the 'return' key. If the tables have been prepared in MS Excel, please paste them into the Word document as text, not as an object: i.e. it should be possible in Word to select and edit the text within the table.

Figures. All images (line diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, plates) are considered ‘Figures’. Each figure should be in a separate file and be numbered (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 etc.) in the order they are first mentioned in the text. Group related graphics into a single figure and label A, B, C, etc. following the style in recent issues of the Journal. Images (micrographs, maps, plants) should have internal scale bars. Colour images are encouraged and printed without charge where they enhance the clarity of the scientific information. Line diagrams are normally black on white but may be in colour where this enhances clarity. Consider that some readers will use black-and-white printouts or have reduced colour vision. Height and width of figures should be chosen to not exceed 23cm in height and for either single (8.4 cm wide) or double (up to 17.3 cm wide) column reproduction. Graphs and diagrams are often redrawn and should be inspected carefully in proofs.

We suggest supplying figures for first submissions as PowerPoint PPT (drawings) or JPG (images) files at 300 dpi (= 120 pixels/cm) and 8.4 or 17.3cm wide. Ensure the PDF created for review is less than 5MB in size, the points you make are clearly visible in the figures, and that all pages in the PDF are approximately the same width; if not, please revise figures and recreate the PDF. Reviewers may not be able to download very large PDFs nor wish to resize pages. After review of your manuscript, and provisional acceptance, please submit original figures in non-compressed formats: EPS, AI, or PPT files are suitable for diagrams, and TIF, PSD or a low-compression JPG at 600dpi or 300 dpi at print size for photographic or other images. Please do not supply photographic images as PowerPoint files nor save PowerPoint files in TIF or JPG format as these are generally of poor resolution. If figures are drawn in PowerPoint and contain imported images, then please supply the image files separately as clearly labelled supplementary files. PDF files are not acceptable for reproduction. JPG files should not be repeatedly saved as this reduces quality.

Large amounts of additional information can be submitted for publication electronically as Supplementary Information provided that it is not essential for a basic understanding of the main paper. Supplementary material will be refereed along with the core paper. At appropriate positions in the main text authors should indicate what details are being made available, followed by the words [ Supplementary Information ] in bold and between square brackets. The online submission system provides space for supplementary information to be uploaded in “Supplemental Material” files. The appropriate number of these types of file can be selected towards the bottom of the first submission screen. Similarly, if you are including a video you should enter [ Supplementary Information - Video ] in bold and between square brackets at the appropriate place(s) in the text. A video can be uploaded after selecting a “Video” file on the first submission screen. The movie should be created in a widely available program such as Windows MediaPlayer. A short paragraph describing the contents of any Supplementary Information or Video should also be inserted in the main text immediately before ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.

Reproducing material from other published work. If material from work already published elsewhere is included in the article (for example, a figure used to illustrate a review) then permission must be obtained in advance from the copyright holder. Even before you submit your article to the journal, please ensure you that you explore the copyright situation for the material you wish to use, identify any relevant copyright holders, and establish whether you are likely to be able to obtain permissions from them. When seeking permission to reproduce any kind of third party material, please request the following: (1) non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal published by Oxford Journals, a division of Oxford University Press; (2) print and electronic rights, ideally for use in any form or medium. If not possible to secure such broad-ranging rights, we do need the right to make the content available online; (3) the right to use the material for the life of the work (no time-restrictions such as one year etc on the licence granted); (4) world-wide English-language rights; if rights for all languages can be secured, this is preferable; and (5) the right to use images with a resolution of 300 dpi in the PDF version of the journal, or 72 dpi in the HTML version. Please contact the Annals of Botany Editorial Office if you have any queries regarding obtaining permission to reproduce material that may be under copyright.

Third-Party Content in Open Access papers. If you will be publishing your paper under an Open Access licence but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content
Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]

This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.

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The corresponding author and all co-authors receive an acknowledgment of receipt of the manuscript and a manuscript reference number by e-mail. The corresponding author is informed when a Handling Editor has been assigned to the paper. Manuscripts considered suitable for peer review are sent to at least two outside referees. We give referees a target of two weeks for the return of their reports. Currently less than 25 % of submitted papers are accepted. Authors are asked to revise provisionally accepted articles within four weeks. To view the make-up of the Editorial Board click on View full editorial board .

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The technical requirements for the Article, Table and Figure Files etc. are as described above for the first submission. If the technical requirements are not met, the paper will be sent back to the author until satisfactory files are provided. Revised papers are checked by a member of the Editorial Board and may be subject to a further round of refereeing.

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When a paper is finally accepted you will be asked to supply some additional material for our Content Snapshot feature. Each Content Snapshot comprises a thumbnail image relevant to the paper and a short summary of its principal findings. For this, you will be asked to prepare a suitable Snapshot Image file (in colour) for the thumbnail illustration and also a short summary title and text (up to 60 words) to associate with the image. Examples of Content Snapshots can be found at http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/4/i.full.pdf+html .

You will also be invited to submit an eye-catching front cover picture and about 60 words of text for possible printing on the inside cover of the issue in which your article would appear. The technical requirements are similar to those for manuscript photographs. The picture should be sharp, of good contrast and be related to the content of the submitted paper; however, it need not be duplicated in the paper itself. The image should be sent as a TIFF, JPG or GIF file at 300 dpi, size approx. 10 × 10 cm. Authors of selected material will receive a copy of the cover illustration and a complimentary copy of the relevant issue of the Journal.

After acceptance you will also be asked to complete the online Licence to Publish form. This form also offers the opportunity to choose to have the full text and PDF versions of the paper made available to non-subscribers online from the time of first publication ( Open Access ). There is a charge for this, which varies depending on circumstances (see http://www.oxfordjournals.org/oxfordopen/charges.html ) but it is considerably cheaper for authors whose university or institution subscribes to the Journal, and for authors in developing countries. If you do not select the Open Access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and no charge will be made.

Once a satisfactorily revised version has been received and accepted, the title of the paper, authorship and hyperlinked e-mail address of the corresponding author will be posted on the Annals of Botany website under AOB FirstAlert . This feature is accessible by subscribers and non-subscribers from the Journal’s home page . Corresponding authors will receive PDF proofs by e-mail attachment approximately 4–6 weeks after acceptance. Corrected proofs should be returned within 24 h. Adobe Acrobat Reader will be needed to read the PDF proof and is downloadable without charge from: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html . Authors should pay special attention to diagrams, figures and to equations since these items are usually re-keyed or redrawn by the publisher. At this stage, authors will also be invited to order offprints and extra single copies of the issue in which the article will appear.

Publication and printing process

Once corrected proofs have been received and checked, the paper is posted on the website approximately six weeks ahead of print under AOB Preview . Each article is identified by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier), a code that can be used in bibliographic referencing and searching. The DOI and date of electronic publication in AOB Preview are also printed in the normal fully paginated monthly issue that is published about six weeks later. The paper will appear online and in print during the week preceding the start of the month of issue. The dates of submission, first return for revision, final acceptance and date of electronic publication of each article are printed on each paper.

The corresponding author will receive a free copy of the printed issue in which their paper appears and a free URL that gives access to the article online and to a downloadable PDF. The corresponding author is responsible for distributing this URL to any co-authors.

Post-publication services

Monthly alerts that supply the Journal’s current Table of Contents can be requested by clicking on Email table of contents or by using an RSS feed. For more details on the latter click on XML RSS feed . Readers can also be alerted to related papers in Annals of Botany and a wide range of other journals using the High Wire ‘ CiteTrack ’ alerting system. To access this click on CiteTrack .

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Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form. Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process.

Authors or their employers retain copyright on articles published in Annals of Botany . However, it is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors or their employers grant an exclusive licence to the Annals of Botany Company by completing and signing the Licence to Publish. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and allows the article to be disseminated as widely as possible. The Licence permits authors to use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and that the Annals of Botany Company is notified in writing. For more about rights and permissions click on this link Rights .

The official publication date is the date on which the paper is first posted electronically on the website. This date will normally be when the paper appears in AOBPreview . If a paper is not posted in AOBPreview , the date of publication is the date of first appearance in a fully paginated print or electronic monthly issue.

Author Self-Archiving/Public Access policy

For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page .

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These author instructions have been independently translated into Estonian at http://webhostinggeeks.com/science/journals-oxfordjournals-et

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