Native and alien trees associate with a wide range of beneficial fungi, but the few studies of these interactions tend to focus only on a few plant species or locations at a time. Using extensive databases collected by mycologists in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, we show that, in the latter region, fungi on alien trees are less functionally diverse than those associated with natives. In both New Zealand and the United Kingdom, however, the structure of the interaction network is simplified and "nested". This suggests that beneficial fungi hosted by alien trees may help facilitate further tree invasion.
Is invasion success of Australian trees mediated by their native biogeography, phylogenetic history, or both?
Two speciose clades of Australian trees, Acacia and Eucalyptus, have shown differential invasive ability when exported, with introduced Acacia species more likely to become invasive. The evolutionary histories of Acacia and Eucalyptus clades do not contain underlying phylogenetic signals for invasiveness as individual component species progress along the introduction-naturalization-invasion (INI) continuum. Geographic and network analyses suggest that potentially invasive clades, like Acacia, may be identified because they contain invasive species with smoother and faster expanding native distributions and are located more to the edges of phylogenetic networks than less invasive clades.
This study provide a model-based calculating tool/software that can accurately calculate pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) frequencies of wind-pollinated plant species by including five biological and climatic parameters. The calculating tool can easily be used by any users who are not familiar with mathematical modeling. The required parameters can be measured directly in the field without conducting PMGF experiments, which makes this tool practical to estimate PMGF frequencies. This tool will be helpful to estimate transgene flow and its potential impacts, in addition to determining isolation distances between GE and non-GE crops.