Since its introduction into mammalian cells [1, 2] and animals [3] in 2013, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) has revolutionized many fields of medical research, including disease modeling [4], therapeutic explorations [5], genetic screens [6], etc. CRISPR-Cas9 is a RNA-guided genome editing tool derived from a microbial adaptive immune defense system [1, 2, 7]. It mainly comprises a nuclease termed Cas9 and a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that is complementary to the target sequence. On the presence of a protospacer-adjacent motif on the opposite strand, sgRNA recognizes the target strand via base pairing and thus guides Cas9 to bind to and cut target DNA sequence [8]. The resultant DNA double-strand breaks are repaired...

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