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Issue Cover
Volume 96, Issue 2
February 2017
ISSN 0006-3363
EISSN 1529-7268

Review

This review presents a summary of assisted reproductive technologies utilized to generate in vitro produced embryos in the common marmoset and describes prospects for genomic editing and transgenesis to create nonhuman primate models of human disease.

Embryo

Peptide targeting of connexins protects bovine blastocysts against vitrification/warming stress by preventing the opening of hemichannels that function as a leakage pathway.

Female Reproductive Tract

Expression of PGRA at the window of receptivity transcriptionally represses LIF signaling and aberrantly regulates hedgehog and solute signaling rendering the uterus unreceptive to the implanting embryo.

Comprehensive microRNA–mRNA analyses identified novel age- and lactocrine-sensitive porcine uterine microRNAs, microRNA–mRNA interactions, and biological processes associated with porcine neonatal uterine development.

Gamete Biology

EPAB is an oocyte-specific translational regulator that has a precise role at the preantral stage of follicle development for establishing communication between the oocyte and somatic cells.

Although the sperm plasma membrane SNARE protein syntaxin 2 moves laterally, trans-SNARE complexes are not formed during capacitation.

Male Reproductive Tract

This study shows the equal contribution of clear and principal cells to proton secretion, and the dual role of principal cells in bicarbonate and proton secretion, depending on luminal cues.

Neuroendocrinology

Kiss1 hexadecapeptide (Kiss1-16) is the mature Kiss1 form in scombroid fish, chub mackerel, and may directly regulate reproductive axis via control of GnRH1 neuronal activity.

Ovary

VEGFC and VEGFD produced by granulosa cells of the ovulatory follicle may contribute to follicular angiogenesis and ovulation.

Oocytes may influence gonadal differentiation by releasing growth differentiation factor 9.

Pregnancy

Chronic suppression of estrogen synthesis during the last trimester of equine gestation reduced fetal growth but had no effect on uterine artery hemodynamics, maintenance of pregnancy, or neonatal viability.

Gestational hypoxia promotes hypermethylation and repression of KCNMB1 gene and BKCa channel function in uterine arteries by upregulating DNMT expression and activity, leading to maladaptation of uterine circulation during pregnancy.

Exposure to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet just before and during pregnancy in mice impairs islet cell expansion, resulting in glucose intolerance of pregnancy and the development of glucose intolerance later in life.

Reproductive Technology

Methyl-β-cyclodextrin removed cholesterol from the entire plasma membrane in cold-stored sperm and restored fertility by inducing the acrosome reaction and hyperactivation.

Testis

The ATP1A1-Src-EGFR-ERK1/2-CREB pathway regulates expression of connexin 43 and claudin 11 in rat Sertoli cells; consequently, it is involved in formation and function of junctional complexes.

KIAA1210, which is a novel X-chromosome-linked protein, is localized to the acrosome and associates with ectoplasmic specialization, and has a direct or indirect interaction with DNA topoisomerase 2.

Toxicology

Obesity alters ovarian signaling pathways that regulate primordial follicle activation and chemical biotransformation, thereby potentially contributing to reproductive dysfunction.

PM exposure induces DNA damage and subsequent repair in ovaries of exposed mice, and this response is abrogated in obese females.

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