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Instructions to Authors


Preparing a Manuscript for Submission

Manuscript Formatting


Digital Image Integrity

Supplementary Material

Online Publication: Advance Access


Ethical Guidelines


All manuscripts are submitted and reviewed via the journal's Editorial Manager system. New authors should create an account prior to submitting a manuscript for consideration. Questions about submitting to the journal should be sent to the editorial office at biolre.editorialoffice@oup.com.

All submissions to the journal are initially reviewed by the editors to assess appropriateness for the journal. Manuscripts viewed as potentially suitable for the journal are immediately sent for peer review, usually by two independent reviewers. However, if deemed not relevant to the purview of Biology of Reproduction or of high priority, manuscripts are returned to the author immediately without peer review; this fast rejection process means that authors are given a quick decision on papers not appropriate for the journal.

For those manuscripts subjected to peer review, a decision about suitability is made based on the review feedback and judgment of the editors. When a manuscript is promising but not acceptable in its present form, suggestions for revisions are transmitted to the author.

For information on the journal’s review process or a manuscript’s progress, please contact the Managing Editor at biolre.editorialoffice@oup.com.


Manuscripts that receive a decision of Reconsider after Major Revisions, Acceptance if Appropriately Revised, or Conditional Acceptance may be revised and submitted only once for re-review. Revised manuscripts must be received by the Editorial Office within 90 days of the date of first decision; if a revised manuscript is received after the 90-day period, it will be treated as a new manuscript or a resubmission. If authors find that an extension is necessary, they must request an extension from the Editors-in-Chief in writing. If authors decide not to submit a revision, they are asked to send a request for their submission to be withdrawn.

When a revised manuscript is submitted, the manuscript text, all figure and supplemental files, and a "marked-up" version of the original submission (a copy of the previous submission with revision changes drafted in using font attributes such as redline, strikeout, or highlight) must be uploaded. Please upload the marked-up version as a supplemental file. A point-by-point Response to Reviewers is also required for all revisions.

Submitting Issue Cover Images

If an article is accepted for publication in BOR, the editors strongly encourage authors to submit a candidate image that may be used on the cover of an upcoming issue. Accepted authors who would like to submit an image for possible use as an issue cover should email a high resolution version of the image to the production editor at biolrepro@oup.com. They should also include a one-sentence caption of the image.

Preparing a Manuscript for Submission

Equations. Equations must NOT be formatted using the default math editing tool in Word 2007. Instead, use the Design Science Equation Editor or MathType by clicking "Object" in the Insert ribbon and choosing either object type "Microsoft Equation 3.0" or "MathType Equation."

Figure and reference citations. Cite references, tables, figures, and supplemental data consecutively. Place reference numbers in square brackets, e.g., "as Smith [12] reported" or "as previously reported [3-5]." Authors will be charged for any alterations to References at proof stage.

File format. Preferred file formats are Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect.

Fonts. Only standard fonts such as Helvetica or Times New Roman should be used.

Genetic sequence deposits. Genetic sequences must be deposited to the appropriate database; this must be documented in footnote 1 on the title page.

Headers. Three levels of heads may be used. Level 1 is reserved for BIOLRE section headers (e.g.,Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, etc.). Level 2 and 3 heads should consist of descriptive phrases.

Language. Choose U.S. English.

• In Word 2007 or 2010, click "Review" on the ribbon, then click "Language," and "Set Proofing Language." Select "English (U.S.)" and click "OK."
• In Word 97-2003, click "Tools" on the toolbar, then select "Language," and "Set Language." Select "English (U.S.)" and click "OK."
• In WordPerfect, click "Tools" on the toolbar, then select "Language," and "Settings." Scroll to find "English-U.S." and click "OK."

Line numbering. Manuscripts submitted without line numbering will be returned to authors for correction.

• In Word 2007 or 2010, select the text of the Abstract through the Discussion, then go to Page Layout. Click the Line Numbers drop-down menu and choose "Line Numbering Options...." Click "Line Numbers...," then select "Add line numbering" and change the settings to start at 1, count by 5, and number continuously. Click "OK" in each window.

• In Word 97-2003, select the text of the Abstract through the Discussion, then go to File > Page Setup > Layout and choose "Selected text" in the "Apply to" drop-down menu. Select "Line Numbers" and check the box to add line numbering. Start numbering at 1, count by 5, and number continuously.

• In WordPerfect, place the cursor at the start of the Abstract, then click "Format," "Line," and "Numbering," and enable the "Turn Line Numbering On" check box.

Line spacing. Double-space all text.

Manuscript length. There are currently no page or word limits for BIOLRE manuscripts; however, to contain publishing costs and reduce reader fatigue, manuscripts must be concise and avoid reiteration and redundancies.

• Do not include information in the Introduction that is provided elsewhere in the manuscript.

• Do not present discussion in the Results section.

• Cite only essential references.

• Do not include sequence information that can be accessed through a publicly available database, such as GenBank or EMBL.

• Include only essential figures and format each figure so that it occupies no more space than is necessary to convey critical information.

• Do not reiterate information in figure legends that appears in Materials and Methods orResults. Do not include lengthy descriptive information in figure legends that is more appropriately incorporated in the text of the manuscript.

• Avoid unnecessary tables; do not put data in tabular form if the information can be presented adequately in a few sentences in the text. Very large tables should be submitted as Supplemental Data.

Gene and protein nomenclature. Authors must adhere to the guidelines of the relevant species nomenclature committees.

Page numbering. Number pages at the top right.

Page setup. Choose letter-size, 8-1/2" x 11" paper. Set all margins at one inch.

Section order. Arrange research papers in the following order (for Reviews, the Introduction through Discussion sections do not apply):

• Title page

• Abstract

• Introduction

• Materials and Methods

• Results

• Discussion

• Acknowledgment (if applicable)

• References

• Figure Legends

• Supplemental Data Legends (if applicable)

• Tables (one per page)

• Figures (one per page)

Manuscript Formatting

Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to processing delays. See recent BIOLRE papers for examples of manuscript format. Please contact the Biology of Reproduction Editorial Office with any questions: biolre.editorialoffice@oup.com.

Cover Letter

All submissions must have a cover letter. The cover letter should be submitted as a separate file, saved as “Cover Letter” and submitted through Editorial Manager as a supplemental file.

The cover letter should contain:

The title of the paper and a brief statement of its main point and significance.

Information about any potential conflicts of interest, including professional or financial affiliations that might be perceived as biasing the presentation.

A statement that written permission has been obtained from any author whose work is cited as a personal communication, unpublished work, or work in press, but is not an author of the manuscript. Upon acceptance, a copy of this permission will be requested.

A statement that written permission has been obtained from all publishers, individuals, or institutions that hold copyright or exclusive license for any work (figure, table, textual extract) included in the submission, whether it is the same or modified. Upon acceptance, a copy of this permission will be requested.

If Supplemental Data are uploaded, indicate whether they are to be included in the final publication or are for the reviewers only.

Videos can be published in the online article, with a still image of the video appearing in the print version. Please submit videos in MP4 format. Any supplementary videos that you do not want to be included in the article itself can be uploaded as supplementary data. All videos should have an accompanying legend.

References can be formatted in any readable style at submission, although authors are responsible for their accuracy.

Acknowledgements and details of funding sources should be included at the end of the text. Please refer to your funding organizations to acknowledge their support. PubMed Central links will require a specific grant number to be referenced.

Please list all author contributions upon submission of the manuscript.

Please also define non-standard abbreviations at the first occurrence and number figures and tables consecutively.

Upon revision papers should be submitted in an editable file format (i.e. not PDF) and figures should be submitted as separate, high-resolution, files.

For information on Latex files, please see: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/en/authors/latex-files.html

Title page

Title. Indicate the species studied, using italics as needed. Do not use abbreviations or acronyms. Spell out Greek characters.

Running title. A title of 50 or fewer characters, including spaces. This will appear as the running head of your published paper.

Summary sentence. A one-sentence summary of the manuscript's significance (limited to 250 characters). Do not use phrases such as "this paper demonstrates…" or "we show that…" Examples of appropriate summary statements are:

The protein greatstuff (GTSF), which is produced by the developing oocyte, is essential for preimplantation embryo development beyond the two-cell stage.

Photoperiod regulation of amino acid transport in the brain influences spawning behavior of guppies.

Rat Sertoli cells promote high expression of Clutz mRNA and CLUTZ protein by spermatocytes; the phenotype of a null mutation in the Clutz gene is azoospermia.

Keywords. Title page keywords will appear on the first page of the final publication. There is no limit on the number of keywords that may be provided. 

  • Acceptable Keywords
  •  Acrosome
  • Acrosome reaction
  • Activin
  • Adrenal
  • Adrenal cortex
  • Adrenal medulla
  • Aging
  • Androgens/Androgen receptor
  • Aneuploidy
  • Angiogenesis
  • Anterior pituitary
  • Anti-Mullerian hormone
  • Apoptosis
  • Assisted reproductive technology
  • Atresia
  • Behavior
  • Blastocyst
  • Breast cancer
  • Calcium
  • Capacitation
  • Carnivore reproduction
  • Catecholamines
  • Cell culture
  • Cell cycle
  • Central nervous system
  • Cervix
  • Chemotaxis
  • Chromatin
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Cloning
  • Comparative reproduction
  • Conceptus
  • Conservation
  • Contraception
  • Corpus luteum
  • Corticosterone
  • Corticotropin-releasing
  • hormone (CRH/CRH receptor)
  • Cortisol
  • Cryobiology
  • Cryopreservation
  • Cumulus cells
  • Cyclic adenosine
  • monophosphate (cAMP)
  • Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)
  • Cytokines
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Decidua
  • Developmental biology
  • Developmental origins of health and disease
  • Diapause
  • Differentiation
  • DNA methylation
  • Domestic animal reproduction
  • Dopamine
  • Early development
  • Embryo
  • Embryo culture
  • Embryonic stem cells
  • Endocrine disruptors
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrium
  • Environment
  • Environmental contaminants and toxicants
  • Epididymis
  • Epigenetics
  • Equids (horses, donkeys, zebras)
  • Estradiol/Estradiol receptor
  • Estrous cycle
  • Evolution
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Female infertility
  • Female reproductive tract
  • Fertility
  • Fertilization
  • Fetal development
  • Fish reproduction
  • Follicle
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone
  • (FSH/FSH receptor)
  • Follicular development
  • Follicular maturation
  • Follistatin
  • Gamete biology
  • Gametogenesis
  • Gene expression
  • Gene regulation
  • Genetics
  • Genomic imprinting
  • Genomics
  • Glucocorticoids/Glucocorticoid receptor
  • Gonadal function
  • Gonadal steroids
  • Gonadotropin-releasing
  • hormone (GnRH/GnRH
  • receptor)
  • Gonadotropins
  • Granulosa cells
  • Growth factors
  • Growth hormone/Growth
  • hormone-releasing hormone
  • Histone
  • Histone modifications
  • Hormone
  • Hormone action
  • Hormone receptors
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin
  • (hCG/hCG receptor)
  • Human reproduction
  • Hypothalamic hormones
  • Hypothalamus
  • Hypoxia
  • Immunology
  • Implantation
  • Imprinted genes
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • In vitro maturation (IVM)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells
  • (IPC cells)
  • Inhibin
  • Inner cell mass
  • Insulin
  • Insulin-like growth factor
  • (IGF/IGF receptors)
  • Interstitial cells
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm
  • injection (ICSI)
  • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • (IUGR)
  • Invertebrates
  • Ion channels
  • Integrins
  • Kinases
  • Kisspeptin
  • Labor
  • Lactation
  • Leptin/Leptin receptor
  • Leydig cells
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH/LH
  • receptor)
  • Litter size
  • Luteolysis
  • Macrophage
  • Male infertility
  • Male reproductive tract
  • Male sexual function
  • Mammary glands
  • Mechanisms of hormone action
  • Meiosis
  • Meiotic arrest
  • Meiotic maturation
  • Meiotic spindle
  • Melatonin
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Menopause
  • Metabolism
  • MicroRNA
  • Mitosis
  • Mitochondria
  • Molecular biology
  • Morula
  • Müllerian ducts
  • Myoid cells
  • Myometrium
  • Neuroendocrinology
  • Neuropeptides
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Nitric oxide
  • Noncoding RNA
  • Nuclear transfer
  • Null mutation/knockout
  • Nutrition
  • Oocyte
  • Oocyte development
  • Oocyte-follicle interactions
  • Oocyte maturation
  • Ovary
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Oviduct
  • Ovine/sheep
  • Ovulation
  • Ovulatory cycle
  • Ovum
  • Ovum pick-up/transport
  • Oxidative stress
  • Oxytocin
  • Parturition
  • Penis
  • Pheromones
  • Phosphatases
  • Phosphodiestrases
  • Photoperiod
  • Pineal
  • Pituitary/Pituitary hormones
  • piRNA
  • Placenta
  • Placental transport
  • Placentation
  • Polypeptide receptors
  • Porcine/pig
  • Posterior pituitary
  • Preeclampsia
  • Pregnancy
  • Preimplantation embryo
  • Primates
  • Premature ovarian failure
  • Primordial germ cells
  • Prostaglandins
  • Protein kinases
  • Proteomics
  • Progesterone/Progesterone
  • receptor
  • Prolactin/Prolactin receptor
  • Prostate
  • Puberty
  • Relaxin
  • Reproductive behavior
  • Reproductive immunology
  • Reprogramming
  • Retinoids
  • Rodents (rats, mice, guinea pigs,
  • voles)
  • Ruminants (cows, sheep, llama,
  • camel)
  • Seasonal reproduction
  • Semen
  • Seminal plasma
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Serotonin
  • Sertoli cells
  • Sex determination
  • Sex differentiation
  • Signal transduction
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer
  • Somatostatin
  • Sperm
  • Sperm capacitation
  • Sperm DNA fragmentation
  • Sperm hyperactivation
  • Sperm maturation
  • Sperm motility and transport
  • Spermatid
  • Spermatocyte
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Spermatogonia
  • Spermatogonial stem cells
  • Stem cells
  • Steroid hormones/Steroid hormone receptors
  • Stress
  • Stroma
  • Syncytiotrophoblast
  • Telomeres
  • Teratogen
  • Teratology
  • Testicular cancer
  • Testis
  • Testosterone
  • Theca cells
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
  • (TSH/TSH receptor)
  • Toxicology
  • Transcription
  • Transcriptional regulation
  • Transgenesis
  • Transgenic/Knockout model
  • Translation
  • Transplantation
  • Trophoectoderm
  • Trophoblast
  • Uterine cancer
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • Vaginal epithelium
  • Vas deferens
  • Vasopressin
  • Vertebrates, non-mammalian (fish, fowl, reptiles, amphibians)
  • Vitrification
  • Vitelline membrane
  • Wolffian duct
  • X chromosome
  • Y chromosome
  • Zebrafish
  • Zona pellucida
  • Zoo species (exotic species)
  • Zygote

Authors and affiliations. List all authors and provide the full name (including departments and/or divisions) and location (i.e., city, state, country) of each institution where work was performed. Do not use abbreviations or acronyms, and do not provide street addresses. Use superscript Arabic numerals to key the authors to the institutions.

Grant support. Indicate financial support (i.e., funding agency names and grant or contract numbers, if applicable) in footnote 1. Do not include funding information in the Acknowledgment section.

Conference presentation (if applicable). If any research in the manuscript was presented elsewhere, indicate that here (e.g., "Presented in part at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, 12-15 August 2012, State College, Pennsylvania.").

Correspondence. The corresponding author should be indicated in footnote 2; the footnote should give the complete contact information, including street address, for this person.

Additional footnotes. If two or more authors contributed equally to the work, or if an author's contact address has changed since the research was performed, this information should be provided in separate footnotes.

Abstract. In a maximum of 250 words, summarize the purpose of the work, the methods used, and the conclusions. Do not present data or cite references. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms, and spell out Greek characters.

Introduction. Provide a clear statement of the problem and cite the relevant literature on the subject. Do not include results or summary statements.

Materials and Methods

Ethics. It must be stated and documented that investigations using experimental animals or subjects were conducted in accordance with the SSR's specific guidelines and standards.


Brand names. Use generic names of chemicals, drugs, antibodies, reagents, enzymes, etc., when possible. Brand names should be used if the composition of that brand is critical to the methodology. If a brand name is given, the name of the manufacturer must also be provided. For example:

  • Dynabeads mRNA DIRECT kit (Invitrogen)
  • one-way ANOVA (PRISM software version 3.03; GraphPad)
  • FSHR (1:1000 dilution; product no. ab65975; Abcam, Inc.)

Composition. Specify the composition of all solutions, buffers, mixtures, and culture media (including PBS) if a brand name and manufacturer are not provided.

Donated materials. Provide institutional affiliations of individuals or companies that donated supplies or reagents.

Trademark symbols. Do not use trademark or registered symbols with brand or company names.


Concisely provide readers with sufficient information to replicate the work. Unpublished work may not be cited to provide validation of methodology. Include statistical methods used for data analysis. Use references to published methods if they are identical to methods used in the current study.


Present findings in appropriate detail, using the past tense. Refer to tables and figures in order, without discussion.

Nucleotide sequences should be submitted to GenBank, EMBL, or DNA Data Bank of Japan, and the accession number and date of accession noted in the text. Authors are encouraged to provide a link to the deposit rather than providing the complete sequence in the text.

Genomic and proteomic data should be deposited with the NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository (GEO). The GEO accession number and sequence deposit information should be referenced in footnote 1 after any funding information.


Provide a clear and concise interpretation of the results; avoid repeating the results.


Acknowledge any non-financial assistance (e.g., statistical review, technical help, editorial assistance, animal husbandry, etc.).


Acceptable works. Only published articles or articles accepted for publication may be used. Articles must have appeared in peer-reviewed publications or other published works that are accessible to most scientists. Articles that have been "conditionally accepted," "submitted," or are "in process" are not acceptable. If a paper has been accepted but has not been published in final form (i.e., full citation information is not yet available), please indicate that the paper is "in press."

  •  Abstracts. An abstract may be used as a reference only if it has been published in a regular issue of a readily available and indexed journal.
  •  Internet/online references. All online material must be cited completely and must include the web address and date of access by the authors. Many online sources provide a suggested citation.
  •  Unpublished data. Cite personal communications and unpublished data only if necessary. In the text, provide the name(s) of the individual(s) associated with the unpublished data. For example, "(Smith and Winter, unpublished data).

Accuracy. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references.

Order. All references should be cited in numerical order in the text using square brackets (e.g., "as Smith [12] reported" or "as previously reported [3-5]") and should appear in that order in the References section. If a reference citation appears only in a table or figure, number that reference last. For example, if there are 50 references in the text, four in a table, and two in a figure, the in-text references would be numbered 1-50, the references in the table would be numbered 51-54, and the references in the figure would be numbered 55-56. 

 TIP: Search for "[" in your Word or PDF document to see a list of your in-text references. Use this list to ensure that your references are in numerical order.

Presentation. List up to 12 authors and/or editors of a publication. If there are more than 12 authors, list the only first 12 followed by "et al." Abbreviate journal names according to Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Database, Index Medicus, or PubMed's Journal Browser. Page numbers must be inclusive (e.g., 722–729, not 722–29). 

 NOTE: EndNotes users may download a .ENS file in BIOLRE style from the EndNotes web site (type "Biology of Reproduction" in the Publication Name field).

Abstract in Biology of Reproduction.

Vo TTB, Jeung EB. Calbindin-D9k expression in GH3 cells is a biomarker of xenoestrogenic potential of parabens. In: Abstracts of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, July 31-August 3, 2010, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Biol Reprod 2010; 83(suppl): Abstract 275.

Kwon DK, Koo OJ, Park SJ, Kang JT, Park HJ, Kim SJ, Moon JH, Saadeldin IM, Jang G, Lee BC. Optimizing porcine oocytes electrical activation by adjusting pre- and post-activation mannitol exposure time. In: Supplement to Biology of Reproduction for the Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction, July 31-August 4, 2011, Portland, Oregon. Biol Reprod 2011; Suppl: Abstract 176.


Sokol RR, Rohlf FJ. Biometry. New York: WH Freeman and Co; 1981:253-261.

Book chapter.

Harrison RJ, Weir BJ. Structure of the mammalian ovary. In: Zuckerman S, Weit BJ (eds.), The Ovary, vol. 1, 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press; 1977:113-217.


Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB), Mouse Genome Informatics. Bar Harbor, ME: The Jackson Laboratory; 2004. http://www.informatics.jax.org. Accessed 11 October 2012.

Internet source.

Mammalian Reproductive Genetics [Internet]. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. http://mrg.genetics.washington.edu. Accessed 12 January 2012.

Journal article, 12 or fewer authors.

Demas GE, Nelson RJ. Photoperiod, ambient temperature, and food availability interact to affect reproductive and immune function in adult male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). J Biol Rhythms 1998; 13:253–262.

Journal article, more than 12 authors.

Okasaki Y, Okazaki Y, Furuno M, Kasukawa T, Adachi J, Bono H, Kondo S, Nikaido I, Osato N, Saito R, Suzuki H, Yamanaka I, et al. Analysis of the mouse transcriptome based on functional annotation of 60,770 full-length cDNAs. Nature 2002; 420:563-573.

Journal article, published ahead of print. 

Aitken-Palmer C, Hou R, Burrell C, Zhang Z, Wang C, Spindler R, Wildt DE, Ottinger MA, Howard J. Protracted reproductive seasonality in the male giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) reflected by patterns in androgen profiles, ejaculate characteristics, and selected behaviors. Biol Reprod 2012; (in press). Published online ahead of print 4 April 2012; DOI 10.1095/biolreprod.112.099044.

Journal article, e-journal.

Yuen T, Wurmbach E, Pfeffer RL, Ebersole BJ, Sealfon SC. Accuracy and calibration of commercial oligonucleotide and custom cDNA microarrays. Nucleic Acids Res 2002; 30:e48.


Smith C, Jones K (inventors). The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services, assignee. Adreno-medullin peptides. U.S. patent 6 320 022; 2001.

Thesis or dissertation.

Wilson K. The effects of substance P, neurotensin and arginine vasopressin on reproductive function. London, UK: University of London; 1984. Thesis.


Abbreviations. Do not use abbreviations in titles. Do spell out all abbreviations at first mention in the Abstract and in the body of the manuscript.

Beginning sentences. Do not begin sentences with very short abbreviations or acronyms, especially those that begin with a lower case letter. For example, hCG and cDNA should instead be "Human CG" and "Complementary DNA," respectively, when beginning a sentence.

Definitions. Do define all abbreviations and acronyms at first mention in the Abstract and in the body of the manuscript. Definitions are not needed for names of genes, gene products, proteins, and protein products.

Eponyms. Do not use the possessive form for an eponym. For example, do use Dulbecco Modified Eagle medium, not Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium; Hanks solution, not Hanks' solution; Student t-test, not Student's t-test; etc.

Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Do not use the nomenclature for polypeptide hormones proposed by the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Do use follicle-stimulating hormone, not follitropin; luteinizing hormone, not lutropin; etc.

Latin terms. Do not italicize Latin terms such as et al., in situ, in vitro, or in vivo. Do use italics for gene symbols and genus-species designations.

Nomenclature. For all genes, the gene names should be spelled out in the first mention, and they should be abbreviated in acronym form in all following mentions. If there are any previous gene names, these names should be included in parentheses following the first mention of the gene. For example, "Granulosa cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA; previously known as ________ )."

The basic nomenclature guidelines for Biology of Reproduction are as follows:

A. Mouse and Rat

Websites for nomenclature rules:

• Mouse and rat: http://www.informatics.jax.org

• Rat only: http://rgd.mcw.edu

General nomenclature rules (mouse and rat):

• Full gene names are in roman font (not italic); e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1.

• Greek symbols are not used.

Gene, mRNA, and cDNA symbols:

• Italic font, with only the first letter upper case; e.g., Igf1.

• Greek symbols are not used. Hyphens are rarely used.

Protein symbols:

• Use the same symbol as the gene.

• Roman font (not italic), with all letters upper case; e.g., IGF1.

Mutant alleles:

• Define when first mentioned; e.g., "Igf1 tm1Arge/Igf1 tm1Arge is one of several knockout alleles of Igf1."

• Italic font is used for all letters and numbers, with the allelic designation (e.g. tm1Arge) in superscript.

• After first mention, the homozygous KO can be indicated as Igf1-/-; the heterozygote can be indicated as Igf1+/-, etc.

B. Humans, nonhuman primates, chickens, domestic species, and everything that is not a mouse, rat, fish, worm, frog, or fly

Website for nomenclature rules:

• http://www.genenames.org

General nomenclature rules:

• Full gene names are in roman font (not italic); e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1.

• Greek symbols are not used.

Gene, MRNA, and cDNA symbols:

• Italic font, with all letters upper case; e.g., IGF1.

• Greek symbols are never used.

• Hyphens are used only in very specific cases (please refer to the nomenclature guidelines).

Protein symbols:

• Use the same symbol as the gene.

• Roman font (not italic), with all letters upper case; e.g., IGF1.

C. Fish (applies to all fish)

Website for nomenclature rules:

• http://zfin.org/cgi-bin/webdriver?MIval=aa-ZDB_home.apg

General nomenclature rules:

• Full gene names are in italic font, with all letters lower case; e.g., cyclops.

• Greek symbols are not used.

Gene symbols:

• Italic font, with all letters lower case; e.g., cyc.

• Greek symbols are not used.

Protein symbols:

• Use the same symbol as the gene.

• Roman font (not italic), with only the first letter upper case; e.g., Cyc.

Units of measure. Standard abbreviations for units of measure and abbreviations understood by scientists outside the field of reproductive biology may be used without definition: ml, g, IU, UV, i.v., EC, cpm, dpm, P, etc.


All illustrations that are not tables (e.g., gels, blots, charts, graphs, photographs, micrographs) are considered figures. View the submission site's Help and FAQ pages for solutions to common upload problems.

Digital Image Preparation

The following is summarized from Biology of Reproduction's Guidelines for Digital Images.

General Guidelines

• Images should be minimally processed. The final image must correctly represent the original data and conform to current standards for ethical scientific imaging.

• Original, unaltered images must be provided to the Editors if requested. If the original data cannot be produced, manuscript acceptance may be revoked.

• Cases of deliberate misrepresentation of data will result in revocation of acceptance and will be reported to the corresponding author's home institution or funding agency (see Due Process).

• Please also refer to the University of Arizona's guidelines for digital imaging ethics.



Acceptable (only if uniformly applied to the whole image and equally applied to representative controls):

• Brightness

• Contrast

• Color balance

Unacceptable (unless justified to reviewers and disclosed in the figure legend):

• Threshold manipulation

• Expansion or contraction of signal ranges

• Altering of high signals

• "Pseudo-coloring"

• Nonlinear adjustments, such as gamma

• Adjustments of individual color channels (if necessary on "merged" images, must be noted in figure legend)

Antibody use. A useful discussion is presented by Saper CB, J Comp Neurol 2005; 493:477-478.

Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Data should include:

• Appropriate, representative controls (either in the figures or in Supplemental Data)

• Information on the full characterization of antibodies used

Materials and Methods. Information in this section should include:

• Equipment:

o Make and model of microscope

o Objective lens information (e.g., numerical aperture, filter sets, wavelength cutoff, bandwidth data)

o Camera systems

o Image processing software

• Resolution at which images were acquired

• Software used for image processing; include details about operations such as:

o Type of deconvolution

o 3D reconstructions

o Surface or volume rendering

o Gamma adjustments

Gels and blots

Combined gels. Vertically sliced gels that juxtapose lanes that were not contiguous in the experiment must have a clear separation or a black line delineating the boundary between the gels.

Controls and size markers. Positive and negative controls and molecular size markers should be included on each gel and/or blot in the main figure or in an expanded supplementary figure.

Cropped gels and blots. Cropping is permissible if it improves the clarity and conciseness of the\ presentation; however, cropped gels must retain important bands, and cropped blots should retain at least six band widths above and below the band. In such cases, the cropping must be mentioned in the figure legend, and Supplemental Data for review should include full-length gels and blots wherever possible.

High-contrast gels and blots. These are discouraged, as overexposure may mask additional bands. Authors should strive for exposures with gray backgrounds. Multiple exposures should be presented in Supplemental Data if high contrast is unavoidable.

Immunoblots. If the background is faint, use a black line to indicate blot borders. For quantitative comparisons, use appropriate reagents, controls, and imaging methods with linear signal ranges.

File Types

Preferred formats:

• EPS: Encapsulated PostScript.

• AI: The native file format of Adobe Illustrator.

• PSD: The native file format of Adobe Photoshop.

• TIFF: These files must be saved using "LZW compression" to avoid a loss of image integrity during the submission conversion process.

• PDF: The native file format of Adobe Acrobat. All PDF images should be saved at the highest-quality setting.

Other formats:

• JPG: Due to the lower quality of JPG files, if this format must be used, all images should be saved at the highest-quality setting.

• DOC or PPT: Although it is often easier to label graphs and photos within Microsoft Word or PowerPoint, these file types were not created with print processes in mind, and the final print quality of such files may be compromised. If possible, it is recommended that all Word and PowerPoint files be saved as high-quality PDFs prior to submission.

• SigmaPlot, Deltagraph, Canvas, etc.: Graphing or drawing program files should be saved as EPS or PDF files.

Image Resolution

Upon acceptance, editorial staff will check the quality of all figures and may request new files for online and print production. Edited figures will be compared against those approved by the reviewers and, if substantively different, will need be sent to an editor for approval.

The minimum resolution specifications for digital figure files at final print size are:

• 1200 dpi: Line image (black and white only; e.g., a chart).

• 600 dpi: Combination image (grayscale or color image that contains text; e.g., a photograph or blot with letter labels, arrows, or text added outside the image area).

• 300 dpi: Grayscale or color image (grayscale or color image that does not contain text; e.g., a photograph or blot with no labels, arrows, or other text added outside the image area).

Consistency. Figures should have a consistent appearance throughout the paper.

Keys. A key should be used to explain symbols and patterns on graphs.

Borders. Do not use borders in or around figures.

Lines. Pay particular attention to the quality of the lines, symbols, and patterns. Avoid using patterns in bars; use open and solid bars wherever possible. Do not use 3-dimensional graphs to show 2-dimensional data.

Numbering. Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals (e.g., 1, 2, 3) in the order in which they are discussed in the text. This number should be included on each figure at least 0.5 cm (0.25") above or below the figure itself.


Abbreviations. Define all abbreviations that appear on the figure that have not been defined in the text.

Label consistency. Any numerical or alphabetical labels used in the figure should appear similarly in the legend.

Methods. Do not describe methods or results in figure legends.

Placement. Present figure legends in numerical order and in their own section (see manuscript section order).

Scale/magnification. Indicate the scale used for all micrographs, if not specified in the figure itself (e.g., "Bar = 1 μm" or "Original magnification x200").

Symbols. Special symbols should not appear in the legend. Any special symbols appearing in a figure should be defined in a key in the figure and described in the legend.


Use tables only for data that are best understood in a column-and-row format.

Antibody Table

Biology of Reproduction requires authors using antibodies for immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blots, immunoblots, immunoneutralization, or related methodology, to submit an Antibody table. This supplementary table should be numbered to indicate its position in the sequence of tables in the article (e.g. Supplementary Table 1). In the Materials and Methods section, describe appropriate positive or negative controls, antibody validation, lot number, and provide references. Authors should also determine whether the antibody has a Research Resource Identifier (RRID) by consulting the Antibody Registry and include this information, if available, in the Methods section and/or the Antibody table of the original submission. If there is not an RRID, authors are required to register the antibody and obtain one no later than the revision stage of submission. For more information, see the Resource Identification Portal.

Cell Line Authentication

Cell lines maintained in vitro represent valuable tools in biological studies. However, many cell lines are misidentified or cross-contaminated (1). Studies using misidentified cell lines may affect the reliability and accuracy of results, and thus, could have important clinically relevant implications. Given the importance of this problem, Biology of Reproduction editorial policy will require that all cell lines used and described in submitted manuscripts be authenticated. Authentication can occur using several possible techniques that are not mutually exclusive. The use of short tandem repeat profiling (STR) is an internationally recognized method of genetic profiling of cell lines (1, 2). An important advantage of STR profiling is that the data can be utilized to search major repositories to compare and confirm the maintenance of original cell line characteristics. STR profiling does not, however, give information regarding the tissue of origin. Phenotypic markers, such as the use of thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines, may help characterize the source of the thyroid cell lines. Authors should submit the date (month, year) when the authenticity was last confirmed.

This editorial policy will concur with the ATCC® Standards Development Organization and ATCC® SDO workgroup suggestion to perform STR in the following circumstances:

  • when a cell line is received from an outside source (repository, other investigator),
  • for newly established cultures,
  • If many different cell lines are employed within a given laboratory.

The identity of cell lines used in studies to be submitted for publication in the Endocrine Society journals should be confirmed and that confirmation indicated as part of the manuscript submission process. Alternative or supplemental authentication can be performed by DNA genetic analysis and/or fingerprinting, copy number variant or molecular karyotype/chromosomal analysis.

 Footnote designations. Footnotes should be denoted with superscript letters or symbols, be consistent within the table, and be keyed to data in the table. Numerals may not be used as footnote designators.

Footnote length. Footnotes should be brief, descriptive statements that apply only to the data or formatting in that table. Do not duplicate text from the main body of the paper.

Graphics. Tables should be formatted as simply as possible and should be composed entirely of text characters. Large or complex tables or tables that include graphic elements should be submitted as figures. Please contact the BOR Editorial Office if it is unclear whether material should be a table or a figure.

Heads. Every column in a table should be labeled, including the first on the left.

Placement and numbering. Place each table on a separate page and number tables consecutively with Arabic numerals (i.e., 1, 2, 3) according to their order of citation in the text. Place these numbers above each table, in front of the table's title.

Rounding. Round numbers within tables to the nearest whole number or significant digit. Numbers smaller than "1" should include a zero to the left of the decimal mark.

Size. Do not create a table with only one or two rows or columns; instead, present this data in the text.

Title. The title should be one concise sentence and should appear before each table.

Digital Image Integrity

When preparing digital images, authors must adhere to the following guidelines as stated in The CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications:

No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.

Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to the entire image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original.

The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (e.g., dividing lines) and in the figure legend.

Deviations from these guidelines will be considered as potential ethical violations.

Note that this is an evolving issue, but these basic principles apply regardless of changes in the technical environment. Authors should be aware that they must provide original images when requested to do so by the Editor-in-Chief who may wish to clarify an uncertainty or concern.

[Please see paper of Rossner and Yamada (Journal of Cell Biology, 2004, 166:11–15), which was consulted in developing these policy issues, for additional discussion and a white paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications, published by The Council of Science Editors, 2006.]


1.     Korch C, Spillman MA, Jackson TA, Jacobsen BM, Murphy SK, Lessey BA, Jordan VC, Bradford AP. DNA profiling analysis of endometrial and ovarian cancer cell lines reveals misidentification, redundancy and contamination. Gynecol Oncol 127:241-8.

2.     Parson W, Kirchebner R, Muhlmann R, et al. 2005 Cancer cell line identification by short tandem repeat profiling: power and limitations. FASEB J19:434–6

Supplementary Material

Submit all material to be considered as supplementary material online at the same time as the main manuscript. Ensure that the supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. Supplementary material will be available online only and will not be copyedited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style conforms to the rest of the paper. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any Internet browser. It is not recommended for the files to be more than 2 MB each, although exceptions can be made at the editorial office’s discretion.

File formats. File size must be reduced wherever possible to ensure that all users, regardless of internet speed or computer capabilities, may access the data.


• File size limit: 5 MB.

• Acceptable formats: JPEG, TIFF, EPS, and PDF.

Tables and other text.

• File size limit: 5 MB.

• Acceptable format: PDF. If authors do not have access to a PDF creator, editorial staff will convert the supplemental files to PDF on their behalf.


• File size limit: 10 MB.

• Acceptable formats: MOV, MPEG. QuickTime videos are preferred.

• Authors must include a "still" photograph from the video in a figure in the paper.

File names. Name the file uniquely using a maximum of eight characters (i.e., no symbols, hyphens, or punctuation). For example, "hyperactivation movie.2.mov" should be "hyper2.mov".

File size. The total number of supplemental data files may not exceed 10 files, and the total number of megabytes may not exceed 10 MB. If your supplemental files exceed these restrictions, even with compression, please contact the BOR Editorial Office.

In-text citations. All supplemental data must cited in the manuscript text (e.g., "see Supplemental Table S1"), and each supplemental table or figure should be numbered according to the order in which it is cited.

Legends. Provide supplemental figure legends in a Supplemental Data Legends section in the manuscript (see section order). Editorial staff will publish the legends with the supplemental data online.

Movie still images. Authors must include one still photograph from each supplemental movie as a figure in the paper. This panel can be either the entire figure or a part of a multipaneled figure.

Submission. Supplemental data may be submitted online at the time of submission. It is the authors' responsibility to indicate in the cover letter whether the data are intended for publication or are for review only.

Online Publication: Advance Access

Biology of Reproduction seeks to publish research as quickly as possible, therefore accepted manuscripts are published on Advance Access within 24 hours of receipt at OUP. The manuscript then goes through the production and editing process and, when the final version is ready, it is uploaded on Advance Access, replacing the uncorrected version.

Language Editing

Language editing, if your first language is not English, is to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

Permissions for Third-Party Copyright

In order for Biology of Reproduction to publish any third-party material, including tables, figures, or images in an article, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse. When seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material authors should request the following:

• non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal;

• print and electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium;

• the right to use the material for the life of the work; and

• world-wide English-language rights.

It is particularly important to clear permission for use in both the print and online versions of the journal, and we are not able to accept permissions which carry a time limit because we retain journal articles as part of our online journal archive. Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found here.

Conflicts of Interest

Oxford University Press requires declaration of any conflict of interest upon submission online. If the manuscript is published, conflict of interest information will be communicated in a statement in the published paper.

Oxford Open Access Options

Biology of Reproduction authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication.

After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for Open Access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.


Authors publishing in Biology of Reproduction can use the following licenses for their articles:

• Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY)

• Creative Commons Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC)

Please click here for more information about Creative Commons licenses.


The CC-BY NC Open Access charges are as follows.

For non-society members:

• Regular charge: £1875 / $3000 / €2363

For society members:

• Regular charge: £1125 / $1800 / €1418

• List B Developing country charge*: £938 / $1500 / €1182

• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

The CC-BY Open Access license charges are as follows:

For non-society members:

• Regular charge: £2000 / $3200 / €2517

For society members:

• Regular charge: £1125 / $1800 / €1418

• List B Developing country charge*: £1000 / $1600 / €1259

• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

You can pay open access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Research Article Charges

If you do not opt to have your article under Oxford Open Access, every research article is charged a flat fee:

• Society members: $650

• Non-society members: $1400/£1050/€1255

Reviews have a charge of $100 per page after 6 pages (the first 6 pages are free).


Please click here to learn more about Biology of Reproduction’s self-archiving policy.

Ethical Guidelines


All authors are responsible for the validity and accuracy of the data and manuscript and are required to:

• Certify that no scientific misconduct occurred in the performance or reporting of the research.

• Describe the research in sufficient detail for others to be able to repeat it.

• Include all relevant data, even those that may contradict the hypotheses being tested.

• Acknowledge previous contributions with accurate citations.

• Follow all criteria for ethical conduct of research with animals and/or humans, and to include statements to this effect in the body of the manuscript.

• Make available to other researchers all reagents and research materials not commercially available, including but not limited to plasmids, antibodies, cell lines, hybridomas, DNA sequences, and expression array data used in the studies reported.

• Ensure that the submitted manuscript, once accepted, is not materially altered in the proof stage. All changes, other than minor ones in the text, must be approved by the Editors-in-Chief.

• Ensure that officially recognized nomenclature is used for DNA, mRNA, and proteins, and that all DNA, protein, microarray, and genomic sequence data are available in public databases.


• All authors must have participated in the research reported either in its conception, performance, or interpretation.

• All authors will share full responsibility for the work and accountability for the results.

• A signature on the Statement of Authorship and Copyright Transfer form is required of all authors and indicates that each author is aware of the contents and has significantly contributed to the study reported.

• Potential financial conflicts of interest by the authors must be disclosed in the cover letter, with appropriate documentation provided, if necessary.

• An acknowledgment is appropriate for those who have contributed to a lesser extent, such as by providing a reagent or reviewing the data or draft of the manuscript.

Scientific Misconduct

Scientific misconduct includes:

• Plagiarism

• Fabrication

• Falsification

• Selection of data

• Duplicate publications

• Violation of international, federal, or state rules

• Honorary authorship

The Use of Experimental Subjects

• All studies involving human subjects or human tissue must be in accordance with the principles set out in the Declaration of Helsinki and must have been formally approved by the appropriate institutional review board, ethical review committee, or equivalent.

• Experiments involving risk or discomfort to subjects require documentation that informed consent was obtained from the subjects and that an institutional human research committee approved the investigations.

• A statement that these guidelines were followed shall appear in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.

• The Editor(s)-in-Chiefs reserve the right to reject any manuscript that does not meet acceptable standards of research behavior.

The Care and Use of Experimental Animals

SSR acknowledges that all animals are creatures of great intrinsic value and remarkable complexity. Investigators shall follow the highest possible standards for the humane care and use of animals in research.

• Institutional approval is required for all animal studies.

• Due consideration shall be given to the use of in vitro models, the appropriateness of the animal species, and the minimum number of animals needed to meet rigorous scientific and statistical standards.

• Animals bred specifically for laboratory study are to be used whenever practical.

• All research animals shall be acquired, retained, and used in compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations.

• Research animals shall be properly housed and fed, and their surroundings shall be kept in sanitary condition in accordance with the National Research Council's Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (a.k.a., the NIH Guide), or the Consortium Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching.

• Research animals shall receive appropriate anesthetics, analgesics, tranquilizers, and care to minimize pain and discomfort during procedures. The choice and use of the most appropriate drug shall be made in strict accordance with the NIH Guide, and all procedures shall be those of accepted veterinary medical practice.

• If the study or the condition of the animal requires that the animal be killed, then a humane method shall be employed.

• Use of animals shall be under the direct supervision of an experienced teacher or investigator.

• A statement that these guidelines were followed shall appear in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.


• Authors of manuscripts submitted to BOR must agree that the substance of the research being reported has not been submitted or published elsewhere.

• If parts of the report have been presented in a preliminary report or at a meeting (e.g., abstract or poster), then this occurrence must be stated.

Due Process

Allegations involving possible violation of the above guidelines shall be submitted to the Editor(s)-in-Chief, who will contact the author to request an explanation. If the Editor(s)-in-Chief feels that further investigation is warranted, she/he will contact the Chair of the SSR Publications Committee and the SSR President. These representatives will determine whether the allegations need to be transmitted to the author's home institution.

• If an investigation by the home institution concludes that an SSR member or BOR author has committed serious scientific error or misconduct, then the President will convey the decision to the SSR Board of Directors for consideration of disciplinary measures.

• If institutional investigation provides convincing evidence that data or analyses in a paper published in BOR are erroneous, the Editor(s)-in-Chief shall facilitate prompt publication of a report pointing out the error and either correcting it or, if necessary, retracting the paper. The report may be written by an original author or the Editor(s)-in-Chief's office.

• If misconduct was uncovered during the host institution’s investigation, penalties may range from an official reprimand to removal from specific Society responsibilities or dismissal from the Society. The penalty may also include temporary or permanent withdrawal of permission to publish in BOR.

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