Although climate change is occurring on a global scale, its ecological impacts are often specific, and they vary from region to region. Climate changes in polar regions are amplified, making these high-latitude areas sentinels not only for monitoring climate variability but also for the determination of how ecosystems respond to this variability. There has been a large focus on temperature warming in the Arctic and its ramifications for geopolitics, human inhabitants, and changes in north polar ecosystems. Despite its importance in regulating our planet's climate, much less is known about Antarctica, the fifth-largest continent and repository of approximately 70 percent of Earth's freshwater. The Antarctic continent and the surrounding ocean represent coupled components that both drive and respond to climate. Remarkable changes have...

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