The paper demonstrates how existing theory to assess spatial clustering based on second‐moment properties of a labelled point process can be adapted to matched case‐control studies. The null hypothesis that cases are a random sample from the superposition of cases and controls is replaced by the hypothesis that each case is a random sample from the set consisting of itself and its k matched controls. We compare the proposed test with other tests of spatial clustering, and describe an application to data on childhood diabetes in Yorkshire, England.