Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a characteristic neuropathic pain involving the trigeminal nerve distribution. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines TN as ‘a unilateral painful disorder that is characterised by brief, electric shock like pains, is abrupt in onset and termination, and is limited to the distribution of one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve’. The annual incidence of TN in the UK is around 26/100 000.1 Worldwide prevalence varies from 10 to 300/100 000. The peak age of onset is between 50 and 60 yr with a male-to-female ratio of 1:2. In this article, we present a review of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of TN based on available evidence.