Working with maltreated children is identified as a risk factor for child protection workers’ own psychological well-being. In this cross-sectional study, the first aim was to evaluate the presence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and burnout (BO), as well as levels of compassion satisfaction (CS) in a national sample of 506 Norwegian CPS workers. The second aim was to examine risk and protective factors. Zero per cent of the respondents showed high levels of BO or STS. Seventy per cent of the participants reported moderate symptoms of BO. Nearly 37 per cent reported moderate symptoms of STS. In total, 83.7 per cent of the respondents experienced moderate levels of CS, whereas only 14 per cent of the respondents reported high levels. Low levels of CS and high work-load were the strongest predictors of a high score for BO, whereas work–family conflict, work-load and a high score for attachment anxiety predicted symptoms of STS. Positive challenges at work, a sense of mastery of the work and commitment to their organisation were associated with improved levels of CS in the workers. Several factors may protect the well-being of child protection workers but the present results show that measures employed should be based on an understanding of these risk and protective factors.