A group of Vietnam veterans with penetrating brain wounds to the orbitofrontal, dorsofrontal, and nonfrontal cortex were compared with a stratified control group on self-report and observed measures of mood state and cognition. In particular, hypotheses regarding the regulation of anxiety by frontal cortical mechanisms were evaluated. Results indicated that patients with right orbitofrontal lesions were prone to abnormally increased ‘edginess’/anxiety and depression, whereas patients with left dorsofrontal lesions were prone to abnormally increased anger/hostility. A working model of mood state regulation is presented which represents the thesis that mood sensations are subject to numerous cognitive and biological influences that result in a variety of expressions of a particular mood disorder.

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