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Instructions to authors

Journal information

Manuscript categories

Original Articles published in Brain address neurological diseases and their mechanisms, and should contain no more than eight display items (figures and/or tables). Animal studies are considered but must demonstrate novel signalling pathways underlying disease or describe novel therapeutic interventions, and have significant clinical relevance. Papers that are predominantly methodological or that present hypotheses or models unsupported by original data are not suitable. Studies of normal subjects (including the aged) and normal signalling mechanisms in animals are not considered and will be returned to authors without peer review. Preliminary reports of work in progress or single case studies are not considered. More detailed studies of single cases may in rare instances be considered as Reports (see below) only when they resolve definitively an important problem in the field or when the data lead to a significant conceptual advance. Studies of single cases that can be readily performed on groups of patients will not be considered. The ARRIVE guidelines for animal research should be followed where possible.

Reports are shorter articles with no more than four figures or tables, and are suited to describe especially important advances. The structure should be the same as an original article, with the following sections, in order: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, References.

Reviews should provide a comprehensive and scholarly account of a topic that has direct relevance to clinical neuroscience and that has not recently been covered in the literature. Normally these are authored by individuals who have themselves made a significant contribution to the original literature on the topic under review and are acknowledged authorities in the field. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the literature are not considered either as original articles or reviews. A pre-submission enquiry is required for Reviews. An abstract, outline and key references should be emailed to the editorial office (brain@ucl.ac.uk)

Updates are short reviews that should focus on a fast-moving, developing or controversial area of research. They should be accessible to a general neuroscience and clinical neurology readership. Emphasis should be given to emerging new concepts, findings and theoretical frameworks. Concrete examples from the literature which help to illustrate these points are encouraged. A pre-submission enquiry is required for Updates. An abstract, outline and key references should be emailed to the editorial office (brain@ucl.ac.uk)

Grey Matters lie outside the normal criteria for Original Articles in that they do not necessarily contain original experimental data. These may relate to normal subjects or have an historical flavour. The threshold for acceptance of manuscripts in this category is higher than for Original Articles. They do not have an abstract and references are limited to 10 or fewer.

Letters to the Editor will be considered only when relating to recent articles published in Brain. At the discretion of the Editors, correspondence may be published in the online issue, to which reference is made in the printed contents list. Letters to the Editor are not published in the print version of the journal.

Scientific Commentaries are short pieces relating to an article published in the journal. These are submitted only by commission. References should be limited to 10 or fewer.

Book Reviews are commissioned articles relating to one or several books which surround a topic or viewpoint in neurology. Book publishers please send notification of new releases to the editorial office (brain@ucl.ac.uk).

Errata and Corrigenda. Any significant error will be corrected and an erratum published online and in the print publication. Please inform the Editorial office as soon as you spot the error and provide details of the paper including authorship, title and manuscript number.

Processing times

Please find below the current approximate turnaround times for different stages of the review and production process for a typical manuscript. We aim to process manuscripts as quickly as possible. All accepted manuscripts undergo a process of in-house copy-editing for style, prior to production. The proofs are then emailed to the author for final checking.
Rejection without peer review: 2 days
Submission to first decision: 4 weeks
Acceptance to receipt of proofs: 4 weeks
Acceptance to online publication: 8.5 weeks

Peer review

All papers submitted to Brain are seen by one or more members of the Editorial Board. At this stage, some are rejected without peer review owing to lack of novelty, involvement of normal subjects, serious scientific flaws or work lying outside the scope of the journal. Suitable articles are sent to at least two experts for review, whose reports are returned to the assigned member of the Editorial Board and the Editor. Following peer review, we recommend about 16% of articles for revision or publication. Revised articles are usually sent for re-review. Revision of an article gives no guarantee of acceptance and in some cases revised articles are rejected if the improvements are not sufficient or new issues arise. About 13% of submissions are ultimately recommended for publication. Material submitted to Brain remains confidential while under review and peer reviewers’ identities are protected, unless they elect to lose anonymity


We wish to provide our authors with fair and well informed decisions. If you have significant reason to believe the editorial process has not achieved this, please write to the editorial office (brain@ucl.ac.uk) to request a form that will allow you to outline why you feel the decision has been unfair. All appeals will be dealt with through the editorial office by email only. Under no circumstances should authors telephone our Editorial Board members regarding manuscripts, nor approach an Associate Editor who has handled the paper in question. The Editor will respond to all appeals.

Impact factor

Please see the About the journal page.

Authorship and ethical guidelines

Declaration of Authorship

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. The order in which names appear should be a joint decision by the co-authors. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based on substantial contribution to conception and design, execution, or analysis and interpretation of data. All authors should be involved in drafting the article or revising it critically for intellectual content and must have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. Assurance that all authors of the paper have fulfilled these criteria for authorship should be given in the covering letter. Authors must list their names at the top of the paper and should comply with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship. Consortia or working group authors will be listed on PubMed as collaborators rather than authors. Collaborator names are searchable on PubMed in the same way as authors. PubMed rules for this can be found here.

A Declaration of Authorship must be signed by all authors to confirm that they consent to take public responsibility for the content of the paper and that consent from patients has been obtained. This form is required to conform to good editorial practice and to avoid disputes and must be signed by all participating authors. To reduce the time from submission to the receipt of the declaration forms, during the submission process the corresponding author will be asked, as a prerequisite to submission to Brain, to take full responsibility for all authors listed on the paper. If authors are not at the same venue, separate forms may be used for each author.

The Declaration of Authorship is available to download here or from the online submission site, where it can be found in the top right hand corner of the login page under ‘instructions and forms’.

Once signed, you can return your form to us in one of three ways:
(i) Upload with your manuscript
(ii) E-mail to the editorial office (brain@ucl.ac.uk)
(iii) Post to the address given on the contacts page

Please note that the Declaration of Authorship differs from the License to Publish which is sent by our publishers after a paper has been accepted. Both forms must be completed prior to publication.

Conflicts of interest

Potential financial interests of any authors must be disclosed to the Editor by filling in the appropriate section on Manuscript Central during submission of the manuscript. This statement will be published at the Editor's discretion. A conflict of interest would ensue if: there is anything that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and had not been declared, e.g. shareholding in or receipt of a grant or consultancy fee from a pharmaceutical company or a contract from a medical devices manufacturer. Financial concessions on purchasing equipment in return for publicity of that item should be declared. All sources of funding must be disclosed at the end of the main text under a separate heading ‘Funding’.

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

Ethical guidelines


All material submitted to Brain remains confidential and we operate a peer review system in which the identity of the referees is protected.

Duplicate publication

Duplicate publication is the publication of the same paper or substantially similar papers in more than one journal. Authors must explain in the submission letter any prior publication of the same or a substantially similar paper, and should explain any circumstances that might lead the Editor or reviewers to believe that the paper may have been published elsewhere (for example, when the title of a submitted paper is the same as or similar to the title of a previously published article).

If work that makes up more than 10% of the manuscript submitted to Brain has been published elsewhere, please provide a copy of the published article in order that we can make a judgement on the amount of overlap without delay.

If a member of the editorial board learns that work under consideration has previously been published in whole or in part, the Editor may return the paper without review, reject the paper, announce the duplication publicly in an editorial and/or contact the authors’ employers.

Submission of manuscripts to more than one journal

Authors may not send the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently. If this occurs, the Editor may return the paper without review, reject the paper, contact the Editor of the other journal(s) in question and/or contact the authors’ employers.

Plagiarism and scientific misconduct

Plagiarism is the use of others’ published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without due reference or permission and/or their presentation as new and original points. Plagiarism is serious scientific misconduct and will be dealt with accordingly. Text may be checked for passages plagiarized from other publications at the Editor’s discretion. The Editor reserves the right to inspect raw data.

Data auditing

The journal reserves the right to view original figures and data and may make periodic requests to see these.


Brain is a member of the Committee On Publication Ethics, COPE. Please visit their website www.publicationethics.org for guidance on good editorial conduct. Links to further information on research ethics can be found here.

Consent from patients

Papers reporting experiments on patients or healthy volunteers must record the fact that the subjects' consent was obtained according to the Declaration of Helsinki and that it has been approved by the ethical committee of the institution in which the work was performed. Consent must be also recorded when photographs of patients are shown or other details are given that could lead to identification of these individuals.

Animal research: reporting in vivo experiments

The ARRIVE guidelines must be followed when preparing manuscripts for Brain. Experiments with animals should be performed in accordance with the legal requirements of the relevant local or national authority and the name of the authorizing body should be stated in the paper. Procedures should be such that experimental animals do not suffer unnecessarily. The text of the paper should include experimental details of the procedure and of anaesthetics used. The journal reserves the right to reject papers where the ethical aspects are, in the Editor's opinion, open to doubt.

Drug disclaimer

The mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations, and the inclusion of advertisements in the journal does not imply endorsement by the Guarantors of Brain, the Editor, the Editorial Board, Oxford University Press or the organization to which the authors are affiliated. The editors and publishers have taken all reasonable precautions to verify drug names and doses, the results of experimental work and clinical findings published in the journal. The ultimate responsibility for the use and dosage of drugs mentioned in the journal and in interpretation of published material lies with the medical practitioner, and the editors and publishers cannot accept liability for damages arising from any errors or omissions in the journal. Please inform the editors of any errors.


Statements of fact and opinion in published articles are those of the respective authors and contributors and not of Brain or Oxford University Press. Neither Oxford University Press nor Brain make any representations, express or implied, in respect of the accuracy of the material in this journal and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. The reader should make his/her own evaluation as to the appropriateness or otherwise of any experimental technique described.

Preparing a manuscript

Brain style

Brain has specific style criteria and using these in preparing your manuscript will speed up the production process should your article be accepted for publication.

Title page

(i) Full title of the paper (maximum of 100 characters). Please note we do not allow any abbreviations in titles except for current accepted gene symbols.
(ii) Author names and affiliations.
(iii) Full postal and email address of the corresponding author.
(iv) Running title (maximum of 40 characters).


For Original Articles and Reviews please include an abstract containing up to 400 words. For Updates and Reports the abstract should be no longer 200 words. The abstract must summarize the paper in full, including background, methods, results and conclusion, although these subtitles should not be included. Details such as the number of subjects, number of controls, the age range of patients and their gender should be included if appropriate. Statistical evidence to support your main conclusions should also be included here if space permits. No abbreviations should appear in the abstract, except for current accepted gene symbols. Grey Matter articles and Letters to the Editor do not have an abstract.


Keywords of the authors’ choice up to a maximum of five should be provided below the abstract.


Aim to make your paper reader-friendly to those outside your field, avoiding all abbreviations where possible. The Scientific Editor reserves the right to replace abbreviations with their full meaning.

Do not abbreviate the name of a disease unless it is unwieldy and complicated: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and Huntington’s disease etc. are not abbreviated in Brain, but hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies may be abbreviated to HMSN.
The following abbreviations do not need to be defined or listed. AIDS; ANOVA; ATP; A,T,C,G; CNS; CSF; CT; DNA; ECG; EEG; EMG; GABA; HIV; MRI; PET; PCR; RNA.
Any other abbreviation used in the paper must be defined. Abbreviations used in the text should be provided in an alphabetized list below the keywords and do not need defining elsewhere in the manuscript. Abbreviations used only once in the text or those better known by their abbreviated form, can be written as e.g. NADH (reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide).

Abbreviations for scientific units should conform to the Système Internationale (SI units). The statistical guidelines advocated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (Ann Intern Med 1988; 108: 266-73) should be followed.


The numbers one to nine are written in full, unless followed by a unit, e.g. five mice, 6 days, seven patients with Parkinson’s disease, 8 ml.

Main text

Sections should include, in order: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Funding, Supplementary material, References. Reviews and Grey Matter articles can contain subheadings of your choice.

Manuscripts should be 1.5 or double-spaced, including text, tables, legends and references. Justified text in Times New Roman font size 12 is used, with main headings in font size 14 and sub-headings in 13 pt. Headings and subheadings should be no more than 100 characters in length. A guide to in-text citations is given below.
The main text should be saved as a DOC or RTF file. PDF files are not acceptable. Please do not prepare your manuscript as a LaTeX file, as these do not convert correctly for review. Legends for figures should be listed at the end of the main body of the manuscript.

Gene nomenclature

Authors should use approved gene nomenclature where this is available.
Authors proposing a new gene nomenclature should contact the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee.

For human genes, please use symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC). HGNC nomenclature can be queried. The species listed below all have gene nomenclature committees. Please use the nomenclature they have approved by searching for gene symbols at the following links:
Gene symbols and names in all other mammals (and usually all vertebrates) should follow the same nomenclature as the human gene. 

It can be difficult for readers to determine whether authors are referring to a gene or its corresponding protein, therefore it is important to use accepted conventions for gene and protein symbols. Symbols for genes should be italicized (IGF1), whereas symbols for proteins are not italicized (IGF1). Gene names that are written out in full are not italicized (insulin-like growth factor 1).

Authors should check each gene/protein name and symbol in their paper even if it has been published previously. Genes and their corresponding proteins often have different names and symbols and sometimes you may find that the approved gene/protein name or symbol has been updated. Brain prefers that the same symbol is used for genes and proteins; however, where proteins are more widely known by an alternative name/symbol, then the encoding gene, where possible, should be referred to e.g. ‘TRAIL (encoded by TNFSF10)’. Synonyms can be referred to using 'also known as' or 'previously known as' e.g. TARDBP (previously known as TDP-43). Thereafter, use the current approved symbol and not the previous designation.

Brain allows the use of gene symbols in the abstract and headings. Gene symbols do not need defining in the Abbreviations list. For clarity it is best to be consistent in the use of either the full gene name, or the symbol throughout the text, but use of either is acceptable.


Authors are expected to apply the most appropriate statistical tools for data analysis, and it is acceptable to present results from frequentist, information-theory, and Bayesian approaches in the same manuscript. Authors should include a section at the end of the ‘Materials and methods’ section, with the heading ‘Statistical analysis’. Describe procedures used to evaluate fit of the model to the data, such as goodness-of-fit tests, inspection of residuals, or tests of model assumptions. For results of statistical tests, report the statistical test that was applied (e.g. two-sample t-test, analysis of covariance), the test statistic (e.g. t, U, F, r), degrees of freedom as subscripts to the test statistic (Lazic, 2010), and the exact probability value (P). Indicate whether statistical tests were one- or two-tailed, and the alpha-level that was used to determine significance (e.g. P < 0.05). A 95% confidence interval for the size of each effect is encouraged (Halsey et al., 2015). Post hoc power tests are discouraged.

Authors should include a section in the ‘Materials and methods’ section titled ‘Experimental design’. In line with the ARRIVE guidelines, authors should specify how blinding was performed (e.g. third party concealment of treatments with individually uniquely coded vials) and how randomization was performed (e.g. the order of treatments was randomized by drawing vial code numbers from a hat without replacement using a randomized block design). If either blinding or randomization was not performed, justification should be given. Details of a priori sample size calculations should be presented (including power to be achieved, alpha, the source of means and standard deviations involved in the calculation, and effect size). This is important because a statistical result is more likely to be a false positive or false negative result when the study has low power (Button et al., 2013). Pseudoreplication should be minimized at the design stage (Lazic, 2010).


Button KS, Ioannidis JP, Mokrysz C, Nosek BA, Flint J, Robinson ES, et al. Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14(5):365-76.

Halsey LG, Curran-Everett D, Vowler SL, Drummond GB. The fickle P value generates irreproducible results. Nat Methods. 2015;12(3):179-85.

Lazic SE. The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis? BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:5.

Word count

Original Articles may contain a maximum of 6000 words in the main text excluding the abstract, title page, tables, figure legends and references. Reviews may contain up to 9000 words in the main text. Abstracts of Original Articles and Reviews may contain up to 400 words. Reports may contain a maximum of 2500 words in the main text and up to 200 words in the Abstract and are limited to 30 references. Updates may contain up to 3000 words in the main text and 200 words in the abstract. Grey Matter articles may contain a maximum of 4000 words, have no abstract and are limited to 10 references. Letters to the Editor may contain up to 1500 words and have no abstract.


Each table should be self-explanatory and include a brief descriptive title. Tables must be supplied in Word (.doc) format to enable editing. Please avoid abbreviating words in tables unless already defined in the abbreviations list. Abbreviations must be listed below the table if used. Please supply landscape tables in a separate file. PPT and XLS files can be uploaded but the layout may change when converted to PDF for review.


For the review process, figures can be embedded in the main text if they are of sufficient quality, but separate files are preferred. For review, the high resolution images you upload will automatically be converted to PDF and HTML for reviewers to download. Please label and number your figures and figure legends clearly. In the text refer to figures as Fig. 1, Fig. 2A, Fig. 2B, Supplementary Fig. 1 etc. Each figure should be given a short heading, which will be published in bold font.

For publication, you will be required to supply separate high-resolution files at resolutions of 300 dpi for colour and half-tone (grey shaded) artwork or 600 dpi for black and white line drawings. TIF files are preferred. PDF files are not recommended. We advise that you create your high-resolution images first as these will be easily converted into low-resolution images by our online submission system for peer-review. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, click here. Figures should be prepared to fit into a single column (90 mm width) or two columns (185 mm). The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Brain does not charge for printing colour figures.

Original articles and Grey Matter articles should contain no more than eight display items (figures and/or tables). Updates and Reports should contain no more than four display items. Authors of Updates and Reviews are encouraged to include figures, boxes and glossary terms, which might help the reader to understand technical or conceptual points. Letters to the Editor should contain no more than two display items.

Requirements for images

Image manipulation beyond minimal processing (for instance, to add arrows to a micrograph) is strictly forbidden. Unprocessed data and metadata files must be archived by the author(s) in case they are requested by the editorial team or reviewers during manuscript evaluation. This requirement for archiving data and metadata for images is particularly important because readers occasionally highlight issues with images after publication, and authors may be required to respond to such queries via the Editor. All digitized images submitted with the final version of the manuscript must be of high quality and have resolutions of at least 300 dpi for colour, 600 dpi for greyscale and 1200 dpi for line art.
All images must accurately represent the original data in line with the latest standards now expected by the research community.

Please list in the methods all tools and software used to acquire images, including image-gathering settings and any required processing manipulations.

Single images created from separately acquired (e.g. different times or from different locations) are not permitted unless it is clearly stated in the legend that the combined image is, for example, time-averaged data or a time-lapse sequence. If comparative images are required in one figure then separate images must be demarcated in the whole figure and described in the legend.

Changing contrast or brightness may be acceptable when it is applied evenly over the whole image including over the controls. Reducing or increasing contrast to hide data is forbidden. Processing to emphasize a region in an image to the detriment of other regions is inappropriate, particularly where an attempt is made to reinforce significance of experimental data relative to the control.

Use of cloning and healing tools, such as those available in Photoshop, or any feature that deliberately obscures manipulations, is considered inappropriate. Where such tools are used by necessity, for example to remove identifying data about patients from an image, then this should be explicitly mentioned in the figure legend.

Electrophoretic gels and blots

Brain allows cropped gels and blots in the main paper only if they improve understanding of the data reported. Cropping must be indicated in the image and mentioned in the figure legend. Full-length gels and/or blots are to be made available as supplementary data, which will be published online if the manuscript is accepted.
All gels must include positive and negative controls, as well as molecular size markers; where these are not visible in the cropped figure then such controls must show clearly in the expanded data supplementary figure.

Please provide a citation for characterized antibodies. Where a citation is not yet available, then a detailed characterization demonstrating the specificity of the antibody and the range of reactivity of the reagent in the assay, should be supplied as supplementary information. Brain recommends submission of data and linking with an antibody profile database (e.g. Antibodypedia, 1DegreeBio).

While Brain discourages quantitative comparisons between samples on different gels/blots, if this is part of the experiment reported, then the legend must state that the samples derive from the same experiment and that gels/blots were processed in parallel. Sliced images that compare lanes that were non-adjacent in the original gel must have a dark line delineating the boundary between the gels. Loading controls (e.g. GAPDH, actin) must be run on the same blot. Sample processing controls run on different gels must be identified as such, and distinctly from loading controls.

Cropped gels/blots in the paper must retain important bands, and Brain recommends at least six band widths above and below the band under investigation.

Overexposure may mask additional bands and high-contrast gels and blots are therefore discouraged. Grey backgrounds are expected as the norm. If high contrast is unavoidable then multiple exposures should be presented in the supplementary information.
For quantitative comparisons, appropriate reagents, controls and imaging methods with linear signal ranges should be used.


(i) All micrographs must carry a magnification bar.

(ii) Each figure must have a short title.

(iii) Legends for figures should be listed at the end of the main text document.

(iv) Abbreviations and symbols used in a figure must be defined in the figure legend unless they have been used and defined in the main text and appear in the main text list of abbreviations.

(v) Submit files at a resolution of 300 dpi or higher, and at a size that allows the reader to see detail.

(vi) In laying out figure panels avoid unnecessary empty space or clutter. Identify figure panels with capital letters (A, B, etc) in 9 pt at the final figure size. Panels should be ordered from left to right and then from top to bottom.

(vii) Keys to symbols should be as simple as possible.

(viii) Axes should not extend beyond the range of the data. Use leading zeros on decimals (e.g. 0.1).

(ix) Solid symbols are preferable to open symbols except to indicate data overlap. Circles, squares, diamonds and triangles are preferable to crosses. Symbols and lines should be distinguishable when the figure is reduced, and no smaller than 5 and 0.5 pt, respectively at the final size.

(x) Bar charts with a single bar or with a bar indicating 100% should be avoided. Keep bar width to the minimum required for legibility.

(xi) Avoid using different shades of grey or colours that are close in hue to identify different symbols or columns in a bar chart. Colour should be used sparingly to identify different categories of data, and red and green should not be used together in graphs. Avoid shadows and unnecessary 3D effects.

Figure files

Figures should preferably be saved separately but can be embedded in a DOC file for review. Figures in revised manuscripts should be uploaded separately, preferably as high resolution TIFF files. PDF and HTML renditions are made for the following file extensions: doc, rtf, htm, wpd, txt, ppt, xls. The following file extensions are handled as images and converted to .jpg: gif, jpg, avs, bie, bmp, cgm, cmyk, dcx, dib, dicom, epdf, epi, epsf, epsi, ept, fax, fig, fits, fpx, gray, hdf, histo-gram, hpgl, jbig, jpeg, ico, label, map, miff, mng, mono, m2v, pbm, pcd, pcds, pcl, pcx, pgm, pix, Plasma, png, pnm, ppm, psd, ps2, rad, rgb, rgba, rla, rle, sgi, shtml, sun, tga, tif, tiff, tile, tim, ttf, uil, uyvy, vicar, vid, viff, xc, xbm, xpm, xwd, yuv. Note: eps, eps2, ps and ai file extensions are special. If the file designation is a (configurable) type image then they are run through GhostScript to convert to PDF (picture), otherwise they are run through ActivePDF to convert to PDF (text). Please note that while you may upload other file types, they will not be converted to PDF files and will not be viewable by referees.

Other file types

Other file types, such as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (.xls) and Powerpoint presentations (.ppt) may be uploaded, however the layout may change when these are automatically converted to PDF files for review. The journal cannot accept LaTex files.

Thumbnail figure

At submission, please provide a thumbnail figure (can be a cartoon or schematic) in jpeg format. This will be used on our website and electronic Table of Contents.

Supplementary material

Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures (including colour).

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary material. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary material must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary material upon submission. Also ensure that the Supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary (Supplementary Fig. 1; Supplementary Table 1).

Please note that Supplementary material will not be edited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, that the style of terms conforms with the rest of the paper, and that there are no tracked changes. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any internet browser.

A maximum of 10 files is acceptable to make up the Supplementary material unit for the article. The maximum size per file should not exceed 1.5 MB. Smaller files will be downloaded more efficiently by readers.

(i) Provide all files in PDF (.pdf). Files supplied in other formats will be converted to PDF.
(ii) Images should be a maximum size of 640 x 480 pixels (9 x 6.8 inches at 72 pixels per inch).
(iii) Provide sound clips in .mp3 format
(v) Provide video clips in .mpg or .mp4 format. If video files are too large to be uploaded onto the submission site, please send them by Dropbox to the editorial office (brain@ucl.ac.uk). The journal staff, editors and reviewers will only be able to view these unconverted files if they have the appropriate software, which cannot be guaranteed.

Please note that supplementary material is not edited or typeset in any way, and is uploaded exactly as we receive it. For this reason, we do not send out proofs of the supplementary material, and authors need to ensure that these files are correct before submitting their paper.


Citations in text

Brain uses parenthetical citations in-text with the following stipulations: all in ascending chronological order followed by alphabetical order; et al. is in italics and used if there are more than two authors; last name of the first author is followed by comma then a space then the year. Citations are separated by semi-colons. If an author appears on two citations in one year add a, b in italics after the year. References should not be numbered either in the text or list of citations.The punctuation in the text should follow the style of the journal (see current issue).

Example (Richardson, 1996; Alberts, 2001, 2009; Smith and Black, 2008a; Bolton et al., 2010a, b).

Reference list

Bibliographic references should be limited to essential literature. They should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order and not numbered. Author names are listed to a maximum of six; further names should be indicated by et al. For helpful examples of reference formatting consult Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals. Please see common examples below. Any manuscript with an incorrectly formatted reference list will be returned to the author.

Journal article
Triggs WJ, Ghacibeh G, Springer U, Bowers D. Lateralized asymmetry of facial motor evoked potentials. Neurology 2005; 65: 541-4.

Morecraft RJ, Herrick JL, Stilwell-Morecraft KS, Louie JL, Schroeder CM, Ottenbacher JG, et al. Localization of arm representation in the corona radiata and internal capsule in the non-human primate. Brain 2002; 125: 176-98.

Jones-Gotman M, Harnadek MC, Kubu CS. Neuropsychological assessment for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Can J Neurol Sci 2000; 27 (Suppl 1): S39–43.

Articles with the same first author:
Those by the author alone are listed first, those with two authors listed after these and any with three or more authors last. Author names must be given up to a maximum of six and any more should be indicated by et al.

If there is more than one paper from the same author for a given year, these should be listed a, b, c, etc.

Friston K, Ashburner J, Frith C, Poline J, Heather K, Frackowiak R. Spatial
registration and normalization of images. Hum Brain Mapp 1995a;
3: 165–89.

Friston K, Holmes A, Worsley K, Poline J, Frith C, Frackowiak R. Statistical
parametric maps in functional imaging: a general linear approach. Hum
Brain Mapp 1995b; 2: 189–210.

Review Article
Handwerker HO, Kobal G. Psychophysiology of experimentally induced pain. [Review]. Physiol Rev 1993; 73: 639-71.

Book chapter
Barkovich AJ. Disorders of neuronal migration and organization. In: Kuzniecky RI, Jackson GD, editors. Magnetic resonance in epilepsy. New York: Raven Press; 1994. p. 235-55.

Costa DC, Morgan GF, Lassen NA, editors. New trends in neurology and psychiatry. London: John Libbey; 1993.

Article on advance access using digital object identifier (DOI)
Trimble, M. June 10, 2012. Musing about medical muses. Brain 10.1093/brain/aws116

Papers in which the reference citations do not follow this format may be returned to the author. References to papers 'in preparation' or 'submitted' are not acceptable; if 'in press', the name of the journal or book must be given. Reference citations should not include 'personal communications' or other inaccessible information; information derived from personal communications or from unpublished work by the authors should be referred to in the text.

Note: In the online version of Brain there are automatic links from the reference section of each article to cited articles in Medline. This is a useful feature for readers, but is only possible if the references are accurate. It is the responsibility of the author to ensure the accuracy of the references in the submitted article. Downloading references directly from Medline is highly recommended.


All references must be quoted in the text. A reference bibliography is not suitable.

Procedure for submitting a manuscript online

Submitting a new manuscript

A single PDF file containing your main text and reduced-resolution versions of any figures you have submitted will be created automatically. This document will be used when your manuscript undergoes peer review. Your submitted files will appear in this PDF sequentially, as specified by you on the submission page, and you will have an opportunity to enter figure captions and to check the PDF file prior to final submission.

A Cover Letter must accompany the submission, and should contain an abbreviated summary of no more than 50 words that should be accessible to the non-specialist. In the event of acceptance an edited version of this summary may be used to draw attention to the paper in the on-line table of contents. It should therefore capture the main purpose and conclusions of the work. For animal studies a statement whether the ARRIVE guidelines have been used should also be included in the cover letter.

Visit the online submission website. If you do not know your login details, check to see if you are already registered by clicking on the 'Forgot your password' button and following the on-screen instructions. If you are not already registered, you can register by clicking on the 'Create account' button on the login screen and following the on-screen instructions.

Please consult the Scholar One Online User Guide which provides detailed submission instructions, screen shots and 'movie tutorials' explaining how to submit your paper. Alternatively, please contact the journal's editorial office (brain@ucl.cam.ac.uk) who will be pleased to assist you.

Submitting a revised manuscript

In the 'Author Centre' of Manuscript Central, click on 'Manuscripts with decisions’. A list of manuscripts will appear at the bottom of the page, with an option to ‘create a revision’ next to the appropriate one. This will assign your revision to the original manuscript ID with the suffix .R1, .R2, .R3 etc. You should upload your revised manuscript using the same manuscript ID as your original submission to avoid your revision being dealt with as new manuscript. If the ‘create a revision’ option has expired, please contact the editorial office (brain@ucl.cam.ac.uk).

In the ‘create a revision’ process, there is a field in which to cut and paste responses to the referees. This enables the referees to view your answers to their comments. On a later page you are given the option of including a cover letter to the Editor. If you submit your comments to the referees by appending a letter, there may be a delay in the referees seeing your comments because attached letters are not automatically sent to the reviewers.

When you reach the ‘My Files’ screen, delete the files from the first submission that do not need to be seen again. These will already have been saved elsewhere. Upload your revised manuscript, figures and supplementary material. To facilitate the production process, it is essential that you upload your main text and tables as .doc or .rtf files, and not in .pdf format.

As detailed above, your images are required as high-resolution .tif files (600 dpi for line drawings and 300 dpi for colour and half-tone artwork). For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to http://cpc.cadmus.com/da. Please note that publication of your manuscript will not proceed until figures suitable for reproduction are received.

As mentioned above, authors need to ensure that supplementary material files are correct before submitting their paper, as there will be no further opportunity to edit these.

For guidance, please consult the Scholar One Online User Guide or contact the journal's editorial office who will be pleased to assist you.

Accepted manuscripts


Should you need to send us any large files such as figures or videos after you have received an acceptance email from us, please use Dropbox and send the link to the editorial office (brain@ucl.cam.ac.uk). After a manuscript has been accepted, the submission site is no longer accessible to authors.

Proof correction

The Production Editor (brainj@oup.com) at Oxford University Press will email the corresponding author with the proof of your article. The message will contain a link to your article for correction, and a link to the License to Publish and offprint order form. Proofs are to be returned within three working days of their arrival, with the changes clearly marked, by uploading these to the online site. Please ensure that the License to Publish is signed on return of your proof corrections. Not signing this will delay the publication of your article. If you are unlikely to be available when your proof arrives, please inform our Production Editor (brainj@oup.com) that you wish the proofs to be sent to another assigned person. No changes to manuscripts will be accepted after proofs have been corrected and the final paper approved for publication. Any essential changes after this point will be published as corrigenda.

Free link to online article

On publication of your article, you will receive a URL, giving you access to the published article on the Journal website, and information on use of this link.

License to Publish

It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors grant an exclusive licence to the Journal, published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible.
The corresponding author will be sent a link to the online License to Publish with the proofs of the article. Please ensure that the License to Publish is signed on return of your proof corrections. The article cannot be published until this form is signed. Please note that this form must be signed in addition to the Declaration of Authorship required by the editorial office.

Full details of OUP’s publication rights policies, including author rights can be found here.


Articles that are considered newsworthy may be selected for press release. If your institution intends to issue a press release about your article, please contact the Production Editor (brainj@oup.com) after you have received your proofs to arrange an embargo date for the publication of your article.

Open Access option for authors

Brain authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory Licence to Publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.
Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in Brain can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licence:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post.

Charges for CC-BY and CC-BY-NC

  • Regular charge: £2000 / $3200 / €2600
  • List B Developing country charge*: £1000 / $1600 / €1300
  • List A Developing country charge*: £0 / $0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, Oxford University Press will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Use of the author's original manuscript and the accepted manuscript

Following acceptance of your article you are entitled to mount the author's original manuscript version of the article on your own personal website and/or that of your employer and/or post it on free public servers of author's original manuscripts and/or articles in your subject area, as long as you acknowledge that the article has been accepted for publication by the relevant journal. On publication of your article in the journal you are not required to remove the author's original manuscript version from your own personal website or that of your employer or free public servers of author's original manuscript and/or articles in your subject area, provided (i) you include a link (URL) to the published version of the article on the journal’s website; and (ii) the journal is attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given.

You may post the accepted manuscript of the article (but not the final published version itself) onto your own website, your institution’s website and in institutional or subject-based repositories, provided that it is not made publicly available until 12 MONTHS after the online date of publication, and that criteria (i) and (ii) above are fulfilled.
If the article is published in OXFORD OPEN, provided you have paid the appropriate open access charge, you may deposit the accepted manuscript and/or the version of record of the article into an institutional or centrally organized repository, immediately upon publication provided that criteria (i) and (ii) above are fulfilled.

You may use the article within your employer’s institution or company for educational or research purposes only, including use in course-packs, as long as:
(i) you do not use it for commercial purposes or re-distribution outside of the institution/company;
(ii) you acknowledge the journal as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given.

(i) No article will be published unless a License to Publish has been signed. As the author(s), copyright of the article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright of your work).
(ii) Full details of Oxford Journals’ Publications Rights Policies including self-archiving rights for authors can be found here.
(iii) Author's original manuscript: an ‘un-refereed manuscript’ version of the article, as submitted for review by a journal.
(iv) Accepted Manuscript: the final draft author manuscript, as accepted for publication by a journal, including modifications based on referees’ suggestions but before it has undergone copyediting and proof correction.


For queries regarding rights and permissions to use Brain material please see
Oxford Journals Permissions. Authors may use their own figures in other publications provided that the original paper in Brain is cited.

Advance Access

Please see advance access for a list of recently published papers. Advance access enables us to publish accepted papers online soon after they have been proofed.
New papers are put into advance access at regular intervals and are then taken off the page once they have been paginated, at which point the issue into which they are incorporated will be posted online. Abstracts and titles are searchable and accessible within the journal's web pages, the archive and PubMed. Appearance in advance access constitutes publication. The official publication date appears beneath the title of each manuscript article just before its digital object identifier (DOI).

What is a DOI?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is an automatically generated unique identifier for intellectual property in the digital environment, e.g. 10.1093/brain/aws116. It appears on the proof and in the final print and online versions of the manuscript.

How do I cite papers that appear in advance access?

Papers published in advance access are citeable using the DOI and publication date.

An example of an Advance Access citation:
Trimble, M. June 10, 2012. Musing about medical muses. Brain 10.1093/brain/aws116
The same paper in its final form would be cited:
Trimble, M. 2012. Musing about medical muses. Brain 2012; 135: 2300-2302.


Brain Editorial Office

Brain Editorial Office
Ormond House
27 Boswell Street
London WC1N 3JZ

E-mail: brain@ucl.ac.uk

Telephone: ++44 (0)203 290 3661

All editorial enquires, reviewer enquiries, problems uploading manuscripts and appeal forms should be sent to brain@ucl.ac.uk

Oxford Journals Production Editor

Enquiries regarding proofs, publication date, licenses to publish and press releases should be sent to:

Production Editor, Brain
Oxford Journals, Oxford University Press
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP

E-mail: brainj@oup.com

Tel: +44 (0) 1865 354502

Manuscript Central

Technical queries regarding Manuscript Central should be sent to Scholar One (support@scholarone.com)

Rights and New Business Development
Oxford University Press
Great Clarendon Street
Oxford OX2 6DP UK

E-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Tel: +44 (0)1865 354490
Fax: +44 (0)1865 353485

Further information

Books for review

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Please do not send hard copies of the books unless requested.

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