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Volume 38, Issue 2
1 February 2017
ISSN 0143-3334
EISSN 1460-2180

Review

Evasion of immune cell detection and destruction is essential for tumor establishment. Herein, we review the interplay between host immunity and cancer stem cells (CSCs) by examining the immune-related mechanisms that favor CSC maintenance and expansion.

Biology, Genetics and Epigenetics

By reversing emphasis from precursor uptake to product accumulation and release, we posit that lactate production (‘lactagenesis’) supports carcinogenesis and it is the explanation and purpose of the Warburg effect. We posit that in carcinogenesis, aberrant cell signaling due to exaggerated and continually high lactate levels yields an inappropriate positive feedback loop that increases glucose uptake, glycolysis, lactate production and release, decreases mitochondrial function and clearance and upregulates glycolytic enzyme and monocarboxylate transporter expression thereby supporting angiogenesis, immune escape, cell migration, metastasis and self-sufficient metabolism, all of which encourage progression to cancer.

FBP1 expression was downregulated in both clinical specimens and HCC cells. FBP1 impaired proliferation and metastasis of HCC in vitro and in vivo, and FBP1 acted as a suppressor in HCC progression by depressing the Warburg effect.

In this study, we showed major differences in somatic mutations observed in metastases as compared to the primary tumor in non-small cell lung cancer. In contrast, mutation patterns in primary tumor and metastases of small cell lung cancer patients showed a marked overlap.

We systematically examined EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 target genes in astrocytic tissue samples using ChIP-seq and the paper reports for the first time, the differential H3K27me3-targeted pathways in high- and low-grade gliomas.

Cancer Biomarkers and Molecular Epidemiology

This study revealed, for the first time, the role of serum d-mannose as a novel, potential prognostic indicator to identify EAC patients at high risk of recurrence and mortality.

The findings provided evidence that rs57408770 may play functional roles in the carcinogenesis of HCC by affecting SRp20 binding with pre-miR-3131 and affect the expression of mature miR-3131, subsequently affecting expression of DTHD1 and XAF1, thus confers risk for HCC.

Bioinformatics analyses on CRC GWAS-identified risk loci selected nine potentially functional SNPs located at TFBSs, and a two-stage case-control study identified rs6695837 as a CRC risk SNP. Functional experiments indicated it is potentially in the susceptibility of CRC.

Inflammation, Microenvironment and Prevention

This study identifies the effectiveness of cucurbitacin B, a tetracyclic triterpenoid, against both EGFR-wild type and EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells through modulation of sestrin-3.

Carcinogenesis

RPA2 expression was upregulated in breast cancer cells and tissues. Ectopic expression of RPA2 promoted oncogenic properties in breast cancer cells. RPA2-dependent tumorigenicity was mediated via enhancement of NF-κB activity by relieving the antagonistic function of menin on NF-κB-regulated transcription.

Ikaros and HDAC regulate AZGP1 expression in HCC. Downregulation of AZGP1 in the serum of HCC was associated with poor prognosis. AZGP1 inhibited cell migration and metastasis through the regulation of the PTEN/Akt and CD44s pathways.

This comprehensive pooled analysis strongly supports a prevalence disparity in HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer by race. Furthermore, the pattern of HPV16,18 status and p16 expression in oropharyngeal cancer appears to differ by race and this may contribute to survival disparities.

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