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Volume 38, Issue 1
1 January 2017
ISSN 0143-3334
EISSN 1460-2180

Editorial

Review

Liver cancer genome sequencing revealed target pathways for liver cancer prevention/therapy and the reason for genomic instability in liver cancer.

Cancer Biomarkers and Molecular Epidemiology

We describe an association between short telomere length in leukocytes with elevated risk of gastric cancer or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Short telomere length might be a potential molecular marker, in combination with lifestyle risk factors, to identify high-risk individuals.

Overexpression of the mismatch repair genes MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2 was analyzed in a tissue microarray containing more than 11 000 prostate cancer samples. Results indicate that overexpression is common in prostate cancer and linked to ETS-related gene fusion development, increased genetic instability and aggressive cancer phenotype.

In our study, we describe for the first time that genetic variation within microRNA target sites of mucin genes are significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk and patient’s survival.

Inflammation, Microenvironment and Prevention

p53 plays an important role in silibinin-mediated inhibition of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and associated inflammatory response in SKH-1 hairless mouse. Silibinin-mediated repair of UVB-induced DNA damage is only partially dependent on p53.

Goniothalamin (GTN), a naturally occurring styryl lactone, effectively inhibited colitis, colitis-associated cancer and spontaneous colon cancer in mice, through its potent anti-inflammatory activity.

Carcinogenesis

We showed that YAP/TAZ contribute to non-small cell lung cancer cells proliferation by regulating the expression of MCM7 gene and its hosted microRNAs (miR-25, 93 and 106b). These latters contribute to lower p21 expression in tumor compared to normal tissue.

We show that disruption of cancer cell adhesion and promotion of invasion by fibroblasts is dependent on TGF-β in genotype-specific oral cancer. The findings may lead to new therapeutic opportunities for the control of this most aggressive type of cancer.

Our study demonstrates that FFAR2 is a tumor suppressor in colon carcinogenesis and that BRBs need functional FFAR2 to be chemopreventive. BRBs modulate GR-1+ neutrophils and IL-1β expression in colon in a FFAR2-dependent manner, thereby enhancing the antitumor immune microenvironment.

Oncogene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) plays a critical role in the malignant progression of many solid tumors. Here, we showed that EIF5A2 could promote cell proliferation and trigger cellular metabolic reprogramming including glucose metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver cancer cells.

Corrigendum

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