The concept of community governance became prevalent throughout the world in the 1990s. Neoliberalist globalization reinforced the spread of this mode of governance in northern developed countries, particularly the United States and the United Kingdom, and in southern developing countries. A general lowering of the quality of life for low income and disadvantaged communities and increasing social risks for the wider population had become evident in numerous cities. A steady retrenchment of welfare provision by the public sector accompanied this (Brenner and Theodore, 2002; Alcock and Craig, 2010; DeFilippis et al., 2010; van den Berk-Clark and Pyles, 2012). The so-called ‘Washington consensus’ was critical in advancing the structural adjustment of developing southern countries, particularly the diminishing role of the state in delivering welfare (Mayer and...

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